Svetovna zgodovina 1100-1200 AD - Zgodovina

Svetovna zgodovina 1100-1200 AD - Zgodovina


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1106 AD Bitka pri Tinchebrayju- Angleška vojna nasledstva se je končala v bitki pri Tinchebrayu v Normandiji. Začelo se je s smrtjo 2. avgusta 1100 angleškega kralja Williama II. Prestol je zasedel Henrik I. (Beauclerc), nasprotoval pa mu je njegov brat Robert II (Curthhose) iz Normandije. Henry je pri Tinchebrayju premagal Roberta in ga vrnil v verigah. Robert je preostanek svojega življenja preživel v zaporu.
1113 AD Kmersko cesarstvo doseže vrhunec - Kmersko cesarstvo v današnji Kambodži je bilo ustanovljeno leta 600 in je vrhunec doseglo v času Suryavarmana II. Pod njegovim vodstvom se je kmersko cesarstvo razširilo na večino ozemlja, ki ga sestavlja sodobni Vietnam.
1125 AD Henry V Dies Matilda Vrnitev v Anglijo- Henry V, kralj Nemčije in Svetega rimskega cesarstva, je umrl, potem ko je vodil odpravo proti Francozu Ludviku VI. Njegova vdova Matilda se je vrnila v Anglijo, kjer je njen oče prisilil angleške plemiče, da jo sprejmejo za naslednico po smrti svojega sina na morju. Ko je Henry I, njen oče, umrl Stephen of Blois, Henryjev nečak, ni hotel sprejeti Matildine vladavine in je prevzel oblast. To je povzročilo desetletno nasledstveno vojno.
1143 AD Portugalski kralj Alfonso I.- V skladu s pogodbo iz Zamore leta 1143 je bila priznana neodvisnost Portugalske. Alfonso I. je postal prvi kralj.
1147 AD Drugi križarski pohod - Drugi križarski pohod sta organizirala Louis VII, španski kralj in Conrad III, nemški kralj. Križarska vojna se je zaradi pomanjkanja vodstva in nadzora končala katastrofalno. Končalo se je s prekinjenim obleganjem Damaska.
1147 AD Maroko osvojil Almohads - Maroko je osvojil Abd al -Mumin, vodja berberske muslimanske dinastije Almohad. S tem osvajanjem se je končala dinastija Almoravidov. Do leta 1152 je bila Alžirija pod nadzorom Almohadov.
1157 AD Eric IX Jedvardsson premagal Fince- Eric IX (Jedvardsson) krščanski kralj Švedske, premagal Fince. Nato jih je prisilil k spreobrnjenju v krščanstvo.
1163 AD Delo se je začelo na Notre Dame- ena najvidnejših gotskih cerkva se je začela leta 1163- Notre Dame. Cerkev je zasnoval pariški škof Maurice de Sully.
1168 AD Oxford Founded- Oxfordska šola je bila ustanovljena leta 1168. Po ustanovitvi Univerze v Parizu leta 1200 je Oxford postal njen odmek.
1171 AD Saladin je ustanovil dinastijo Ayyubid- vladar Egipta Saladin je razglasil konec dinastije Fatima, ki je vladala Egiptu od leta 968. Razglasil se je za kalifa nove dinastije Ayyubid.
1171 AD Henry II je začel invazijo na Irsko- Henry II, angleški kralj, se je odzval na prošnjo za pomoč odstavljenega irskega kralja Dermota MacMurrougha, tako da je poslal sile v Warford. Henry je bil z Windsorsko pogodbo leta 1171 priznan za vladarja Irske.
1174 AD Lev William zmagal- Henry II je leta 1174 ob obleganju gradu Alnwick premagal Williama Lion, kralja Škotske. William je uradno sprejel Henryja za vladarja Škotske.
1176 AD Friderik I. Barbarossa premagan z Lombardsko ligo- svetega rimskega cesarja Friderika I. (Barbossa) je Lombardska liga v Leganu odločno premagala. Frederick je poskušal ponovno uveljaviti svojo oblast nad severno Italijo.
1184 AD Ulice tlakovane v Parizu- Ulice pred Louvrom so bile tlakovane. To je pomenilo prvič, ko so bile ulice v Parizu tlakovane.
1185 AD Bitka pri Dannouri- Japonski klan Tairo je v pomorski bitki, ki se je zgodila pri Dannouri, klan Minamoto odločilno premagal. Otroški cesar Antoku, ki ga je Taira ujela, je bil ubit v bitki. Japonska je po bitki vstopila v obdobje Kamakura. To je bilo obdobje, ki ga je zaznamovala jasna delitev med nemočnim cesarskim dvorom in prevladujočo vojaško vlado.
1187 AD Bitka pri Hittinu- Krščanske sile iz Jeruzalemskega kraljestva so napadle prikolico s Saladinovo sestro. V maščevanje je začel sveto vojno proti križarjem. V bitki pri Hittimu je premagal združeno krščansko vojsko. Nato je oblegal Jeruzalem in ga zavzel, čeprav po osvajanju mesta ni opustošil.
1186 AD Drugo bolgarsko cesarstvo- uspešen upor proti bizantinski vladavini Bolgarije. S tem je bil ustanovljen drugi bolgarski imperij, ki je trajal do leta 1396.
1192 oglas Crusader Capture Acrea- Spodbujeni s Saladinovo zmago so kristjani začeli tretji križarski pohod, ki ga vodi Richard Lionheart. Kljub številnim težavam so prišli do obalnega območja Svete dežele in uspešno zavzeli trdnjavo Acre. Richard se je s Saladinom pogajal o premirju, ki je kristjanom zagotovilo dostop do svetih mest v Jeruzalemu.
1199 AD Richard The Lionhearted Dies- Richard Lionhearted je umrl zaradi rane s puščico, ko je oblegal Chalus v zahodni Franciji. Richard, vladar Anglije od leta 1189, je tam dejansko preživel zelo malo časa. Namesto tega je pomagal voditi tretji križarski pohod. Richarda je cesar Svetega rimskega zapora leta 1193 zaprl, vendar mu je uspelo kupiti svobodo. Vodil je stalno bitko s Filipom II Normandijskim. Medtem ko je bil Richard vpleten v zadeve zunaj Anglije, mu je zemljišče upravljal Jubert Walter.

Svetovna zgodovina 1100-1200 AD - Zgodovina

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Seznam največjih mest v zgodovini

Ta članek navaja največje naselje na svetu (po prebivalstvu) skozi čas, po ocenah zgodovinarjev, od leta 7000 pred našim štetjem, ko je bilo največje naseljeno mesto na svetu pramesto na starodavnem Bližnjem vzhodu s približno 1000 prebivalci 2000 ljudi, do leta 2000, ko je bilo največje urbano območje Tokio s 26 milijoni. Aleksandrija, Rim ali Bagdad so bili morda prvo mesto, ki je imelo 1.000.000 ljudi že leta 100 pred našim štetjem ali šele leta 925 n. Kasneje so jih, med drugim, prehiteli Carigrad, Chang'an, Hangzhou, Jinling, Peking, London (prvo mesto, ki je doseglo 2 milijona) in New York (prvi med 10 milijoni). sredi 20. stoletja. Od leta 2020 je območje Velikega Tokija najbolj naseljeno metropolitansko območje na svetu z več kot 37,393 milijoni prebivalcev. [1]

Številne številke so negotove, zlasti v starih časih. Ocena velikosti prebivalstva pred popisom je težka naloga. [2]


11. stoletje, 1001 do 1100

1001 Mahmud, afganistanski in militantni musliman, je zagotovil svojo oblast. Obljublja, da bo vsako leto z mečem in ognjem odnesel Allahovo besedo hindujskim indijskim kraljestvom.

1002 Iz Grenlandije je Leif Ericson (Erikson), sin Erika Rdečega, vodil odpravo s 34 člani posadke na obalo Severne Amerike.

1004 Kitajska elita meni, da bi morali biti njihovi sosedi navdušeni nad veličino Kitajske in njeno naklonjenostjo z neba. Svoje zamisli o zunanji politiki temeljijo na tem in prepričanju, da bodo sosednji kralji, če se bo kitajski narod obnašal moralno, spoštovali, kar si zasluži.

1004 Kitajski cesar, prepričan v svojo moralno premoč, se s pacifizmom odziva na vojaške vdore iz Hitana iz Mandžurije. On pomirja agresije Khitana tako, da jim trajno odstopi tisti del Kitajske, ki ga zasedajo, vključno s Pekingom, in se strinja, da bo plačal kitajski letni davek (davke).

1008 Švedski kralj, Olof Sk & oumltonung, se spreobrne v krščanstvo, in ko se kralj spreobrne v krščanstvo, se spreobrnejo tudi njegovi podložniki.

Divizija 1010 je oslabila Indijo. Skozi prelaz Khyber so muslimani na konju preganjali templja v severozahodni Indiji in nosili nazaj v Ghazni toliko plena, kolikor so lahko & ndash velik del njegovega bogastva, ukradenega iz templjev. Napad se ustavi, potem ko se Indijanci strinjajo, da se bodo poklonili afganistanskemu vladarju Mahmudu. Indijanci začnejo v Ghazni vsako leto pošiljati vlake slonov, obremenjenih z darili.

1015 21-letni Danec, znan kot Kanut Veliki (Cnut I), je z močno floto napadel Anglijo.

1017 Canute je osvojil velik del Anglije. Poroči se z vdovo kralja Wessexa, Ethelredom (Aethelred II) & ndash s pobožnim kristjanom. Canute se spreobrne v krščanstvo in razglasi svojo namero, da bo vladal po krščansko, ter krepi politične in trgovinske vezi med Anglijo in Normandijo.

1019 Canutejev brat Harald, kralj Danske, umre, Canute pa postane kralj Danske

1020 Avicenna, (Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Sina) največji mislec in medicinski človek tega in okoliških stoletij, je star štirideset let. Pred njim je še 17 let življenja, v katerem bo sestavil 276 knjig o medicini, fiziki, astronomiji, kemiji, matematiki, ekonomiji in veri. Verjame v empirizem in racionalizem ter razmišlja znanstveno. Njegovi kolegi muslimani so ga obtožili & quotunbelief & quot;, na kar odgovarja: & quot; Če sem se odvrnil od tistega, ki je blagoslovljen po rojstvu, na zemlji ni več pravega muslimana & quot; njegov & quotCanon on Medicine & quot; bo preveden v latinščino in se bo začel vpliv na Evropo v 12. stoletju & ndash knjiga z 830 stranmi. Na Amazon.com in Barnes & amp Noble bo njegovo delo ocenjeno s petimi zvezdicami.

1022 V Evropi se je začelo usmrtitev ljudi zaradi krivoverstva, štirinajst naj bi jih po naročilu francoskega kralja Roberta Pobožnega požgali v mestu Orleans.

1028 Canute zasede Norveško s floto petdeset ladij iz Anglije, s pomočjo norveških plemičev odpelje norveškega kralja od leta 1016, Olafa II Haraldssona, v izgnanstvo.

1029 Olaf II Haraldsson se vrne na Norveško in pade v bitki.

1034 Milanski nadškof Heribert pograbi člane skupine, ki zavrača krst dojenčkov, in jih požge.

1040 Dinastija Chola, ki jo zdaj vodi Rajendra I (1014-44), vladajoča iz jugovzhodne Indije, je osvojila otok Lanka. V hindujski družbi na splošno se je bogastvo kopičilo na vrhu. Nekaj ​​knezov ima na tisoče služabnikov in obešalnikov. Večji odstotek kmetijstva jemljejo svobodni kmetje, več tistih, ki obdelujejo zemljo, pa so delavci, vezani na zemljo, ki jih na svojem mestu zaklene njihova kasta. Shudras.

1044 vladarjem na Kitajskem ni uspelo vojaško ohraniti Kitajske. Tangutski (tibetanski) bojevniki so vdrli na Kitajsko. Tanguti zasedajo Kitajsko etnično raznolik severozahod, Kitajska pa kupuje mir s tem, da se strinja, da jim bo plačala danak, pa tudi Khitan iz Mandžurije, ki še vedno vladajo v Pekingu.

1050 Na Japonskem so namesto nacionalne vojske ali milice lokalne vlade bogati posestniki, ki so delovali z nekaj neodvisnosti, oblikovali svoje male vojske. Njihovi oboroženi možje so poklicani samuraj (moški, ki služijo), oz bushi (bojevniki). Niso nič drugega kot oportunisti nasilja, vendar se bodo imeli za razred nad navadnim kmetom, ki si težko prizadeva pridelati hrano, od katere so vsi odvisni.

1050 Zemlja se segreva, kar izboljšuje pridelavo pridelkov in povečuje populacijo. V Evropi se začenja "visoki srednji vek".

1054 V doktrinarnem sporu Cerkev v Rimu obtožuje kristjane v Carigradu, da so dovolili duhovnikom, da se poročijo, ponovno krstili rimske kristjane in izbrisali & citirali Sina & quot; iz Nicejske veroizpovedi & quot; Zadnja od teh obtožb je bila neresnična. Cerkev v Rimu izobčuje Cerkev v Carigradu, Carigradska cerkev pa izobčuje Cerkev v Rimu. Razkol med rimskokatolištvom in vzhodnim pravoslavljem je postal dokončen.

1055 Turkov se je preselilo proti zahodu skozi Transoksiano in v Perzijo. Islam je bil razdrobljen in se ne more ali noče zbrati za obrambo svoje meje. Turki so osvojili velik del Perzije in zdaj iz dinastije Fatimid osvojili Bagdad.

1060 Almoravidi (al-Murabitun), puritanski islamski reformatorji, so zbrali privržence in vojsko, sproženo z verskim žarom in zanimanjem za plen, in so se preselili iz svoje baze na mavretanski obali in prevzeli oblast v Maroku in zahodni Alžiriji.

1062 Almoravidi so našli Marakeš.

1066 Viljem I. Normandijski je končal anglosaksonsko vladavino v Angliji in postal njen prvi normanski kralj v Angliji. Mnoge francoske besede bodo postale angleške.

1073 Prej je Hildebrand preprečil poskuse, da bi ga postal papeža, in je predlagal, kaj je papež izbral s strani kardinalskega kolegija. Zdaj Hildebrand postane papež Gregor VII.

1075 Berroni iz Maroka, goreči muslimani, napovedujejo vojno nemuslimanskemu kraljestvu in cesarstvu Gane s središčem v mestu Kumbi.

1077. Papež Gregor VII. Si prizadeva za cerkveno reformo in je v nasprotju z "rimskim cesarjem" v germanskih deželah, Henrikom IV. (Potomcem vladavine Karla Velikega). Gre za Gregoryjev odlok, da bo vsak, ki sprejme cerkveni položaj, ki ga ponuja laik, odstavljen, vsak laik, ki komu podeli cerkveni položaj, pa bo izobčen. Gregory izobči Henrika in ga odstavimo. Plemiči uživajo v moči, prevzeti od Henrika. Da bi se obnovil, Gregory prečka Alpe v Canosso v Italiji, kjer mu Gregory podeli odvezo in odpuščanje.

1080. Papež Gregor spet izobči in odstavita Henrika. Tokrat Henry uporablja moč, ki jo ima nekaj kraljev v večji količini kot papež: Henry gre z vojsko v Italijo in prevzame oblast v Rimu.

1085 Krščanstvo se je proti muslimanom razširilo, odkar je Karlo Veliki leta 801. prevzel Barcelono. Krščanski kralj Kastilje in Galicije Alfonso VI je v svoje kraljestvo vabil kristjane v islamski Španiji. Zdaj se vojaško širi v Toledo v osrednji Španiji. Krščansko ponovno osvajanje Španije je v teku.

1085 je umrl papež Gregor VII. Rimski cesar Henry IV še vedno obvladuje Rim.

1091 Normane so prvotno najele italijanske kneževine kot plačanci. Potem so Normani sami začeli osvajati južno Italijo in postali so vladarji, ki jih je sprejelo papeštvo. Zdaj osvojijo Sicilijo in končajo dve stoletji muslimanske vladavine. Arabci lahko še naprej delajo v javni upravi.

1094 Aragonsko kraljestvo se širi proti jugu do Valencije.

1095 Turki Seldžuki so se širili proti cesarstvu s središčem v Carigradu. Osvojili so Jeruzalem. Tudi Turki so bili muslimani, vendar kristjanom niso dovolili obiskati njihovih svetih mest. Papež Urban II se odzove klicu cesarja na pomoč v Carigradu in organizira tisto, kar naj bi postalo znano kot prva križarska vojna. Urban II napoveduje, da bo Kristus vodil vsako vojsko, ki gre rešiti Sveto deželo.

1095 Začne se prvi val križarskih vojn, od Švedske do Finske, da bi Fince spreobrnili v krščanstvo.

1096. Papež Urban II obsodi samostrel kot "božansko". & Quot Zaenkrat še ni strelnega orožja in samostrel se zdi preveč smrtonosen zaradi svoje sposobnosti prebadanja verižne pošte in preveč neoseben, za razliko od meča in sulice, ki se lahko pari od blizu .

1097 Dobro usposobljeni vitezi premagajo muslimane v bližini Nikeje, kasneje v letu pa križarji dosežejo Antiohijo.

1099 Jeruzalem pade pod križane, ki zakoljejo mestno judovsko in muslimansko prebivalstvo.

1100 Perzijčan Omar Khayyam (Ghiyath al-Din Abu 'l-Fath Umar ibn Ibrahim Al-Nisaburi al-Khayyami) piše svojo pesem Rubaiyat, vključno z vrsticami, prevedenimi kot.

Pridite, napolnite skodelico in v spomladanskem ognju se vrže vaše zimsko oblačilo kesanja: Ptič časa ima le malo poti do plapolanja-in ptica je na krilu.

Ah, ljubezen! bi se lahko ti in jaz z njim zarotila, da bi razumela to žalostno shemo vseh stvari, ali je ne bi razbila na koščke, nato pa jo odstranila bližje srcu in želji!


Azteška civilizacija

Azteško cesarstvo (ok. 1345-1521) je v največjem obsegu pokrivalo večino severne Mezoamerice. Azteški bojevniki so lahko prevladovali v sosednjih državah in vladarjem, kot je Montezuma, dovolili vsiliti asteške ideale in vero po vsej Mehiki. Zadnja velika mezoameriška civilizacija, ki je bila zelo uspešna v kmetijstvu in trgovini, je bila znana tudi po svoji umetnosti in arhitekturi.

Azteška civilizacija z glavnim mestom Tenochtitlán (Mexico City) je pravzaprav najbolj dokumentirana mezoameriška civilizacija z viri, vključno z arheologijo, domačimi knjigami (kodeksi) in dolgimi in podrobnimi poročili njihovih španskih osvajalcev - tako vojakov kot krščanskih duhovščina. Ti zadnji viri morda niso vedno zanesljivi, vendar je slika, ki jo imamo o Aztekih, njihovih ustanovah, verskih običajih, azteških vojnah in vsakdanjem življenju, bogata in se še naprej nenehno širi s podrobnostmi, ki jih dodajajo prizadevanja 21. stoletja Arheologi in učenjaki CE.

Oglas

Zgodovinski pregled

Nekje okoli 1100 mesta-države oz altepetl ki so se razširili po osrednji Mehiki, so začeli med seboj tekmovati za lokalne vire in regionalno prevlado. Vsaka država je imela svojega vladarja oz tlatoani ki je vodil svet plemičev, toda ta majhna mestna središča, obdana s kmetijskimi zemljišči, so kmalu poskušala razširiti svoje bogastvo in vpliv, tako da je c. 1400 je v Mehiški dolini nastalo več majhnih imperijev. Med njimi sta prevladovala Texcoco, glavno mesto regije Acholhua, in Azcapotzalco, prestolnica Tepenca. Ta dva cesarstva sta se leta 1428 soočila z vojno v Tepanecu. Sile Azcapotzalca so porazile zavezništvo Texcoca, Tenochtitlana (glavnega mesta Mexice) in več drugih manjših mest. Po zmagi je nastalo Trojno zavezništvo med Texcocom, Tenochtitlanom in uporniškim mestom Tepanec, Tlacopanom. Začela se je kampanja ozemeljske širitve, kjer so si vojna plena - običajno v obliki dajatev osvojenih - razdelili med ta tri velika mesta. Sčasoma je Tenochtitlan prevladoval v zavezništvu, njegov vladar je postal vrhovni vladar - huey tlatoque ('visoki kralj') - in mesto se je uveljavilo kot prestolnica Azteškega cesarstva.

Cesarstvo se je od leta 1430 še naprej širilo in asteška vojska, okrepljena z vpoklicem vseh odraslih moških, moških iz zavezniških in osvojenih držav ter elitnih članov asteške družbe, kot so bojevniki Orel in Jaguar, je odstranila svoje tekmece. Azteški bojevnik je nosil oblazinjen bombažni oklep, nosil je lesen ali trsni ščit, prekrit s kožico, in imel orožje, kot je super ostra palica iz obsidiana (macuahuitl), metalec sulice ali pikado (atlatl) ter lok in puščice. Elitni bojevniki so nosili tudi spektakularne kostume s pernato in živalsko kožo ter pokrivala za glavo. Bitke so bile skoncentrirane v večjih mestih ali okoli njih, zmagovalci pa so prevzeli celotno okoliško ozemlje. Pridobivali so redne poklone in ujetnike odpeljali nazaj v Tenochtitlan na ritualno žrtvovanje. Na ta način je Azteški imperij zajel večino severne Mehike, površino približno 135.000 kvadratnih kilometrov.

Oglas

Cesarstvo se je ohranilo skupaj z imenovanjem uradnikov iz središča azteške kulture, med zakonskimi porokami, obdarovanjem, povabili na pomembne slovesnosti, gradnjo spomenikov in umetniških del, ki so promovirala azteško cesarsko ideologijo, in kar je najpomembneje, vedno sedanja grožnja vojaškega posredovanja. Nekatere države so bile integrirane bolj kot druge, medtem ko so tiste na ozemljih cesarstva postale uporabne varovalne cone proti sovražnejšim sosedom, zlasti taraščanski civilizaciji.

Tenochtitlan

Azteška prestolnica Tenochtitlán (danes pod Mexico Cityjem) na zahodni obali jezera Texcoco je cvetela, tako da se je mesto lahko v začetku 16. stoletja ponašalo z najmanj 200.000 prebivalci, s čimer je postalo največje mesto v predkolumbijski Ameriki. Ti prebivalci so bili razdeljeni na več družbenih slojev. Na vrhu so bili lokalni vladarji (teteuhktin), nato so prišli plemiči (pipiltin), navadni prebivalci (macehualtin), kmetje (mayeque) in na koncu sužnji (tlakohtin). Zdi se, da so bili sloji relativno fiksni, vendar obstaja nekaj dokazov o gibanju med njimi, zlasti v nižjih razredih.

Prijavite se na naše brezplačne tedenske e -novice!

Ne samo politično in versko prestolnico, Tenochtitlán je bil tudi veliko trgovsko središče z blagom, ki priteka in odhaja, kot so zlato, zemeljski kamen, turkizna, bombaž, kakavova zrna, tobak, lončenina, orodje, orožje, živila (tortilje, čilske omake, koruza , fižol in celo žuželke, na primer) in sužnje. Španski napadalci so bili nad mestnim sijajem in veličastno arhitekturo ter umetniškimi deli navdušeni, zlasti piramida Templo Mayor in masivne kamnite skulpture. V mestu je prevladoval veliki svetišče s templji in monumentalnim igriščem za žogo. Tenochtitlanovo upravljanje z vodo je bilo prav tako impresivno z velikimi kanali, ki so prečkali mesto, ki je bilo obdano z njim kinampas - dvignjena in poplavljena polja - kar je močno povečalo kmetijske zmogljivosti Aztekov. Po mestu so bili tudi nasipi proti poplavam, umetni rezervoarji za sladko vodo in čudoviti cvetlični vrtovi.

Celotno mesto je bilo oblikovano tako, da je v ljudeh vzbudilo strahospoštovanje, zlasti obiskujočih plemičev, ki so ob razkošnih slovesnostih videli, da so mehiški Azteki resnično:

Oglas

Gospodarji sveta, njihov imperij tako širok in bogat, da so osvojili vse narode in da so bili vsi njihovi vazali. Gostje, ki so videli tako bogastvo in razkošje ter takšno oblast in moč, so bili preplavljeni. (Diego Durán, španski fratar, citirano po Nichols, 451)

Religija

Mitologija in religija, tako kot pri večini starodavnih kultur, sta bili za Azteke tesno prepleteni. Že ustanovitev Tenochtitlana je temeljila na prepričanju, da so se ljudje iz mitske dežele izobilja Aztlán (dobesedno "dežela belih čaplj" in izvor imena Aztekov) na skrajnem severozahodu najprej naselili v Mehiški dolini. Pot jim je pokazal njihov bog Huitzilopochtli, ki je poslal orla, ki je sedel na kaktusu, da natančno pokaže, kje naj bi ti migranti zgradili svoj novi dom. Bog je tem ljudem dal tudi ime Mexica, ki je skupaj z drugimi etničnimi skupinami, ki so podobno govorile Nahuatl, skupaj sestavljalo ljudstva, ki so danes splošno znana kot Azteki.

Azteški panteon je vključeval mešanico starejših mezoameriških bogov in zlasti mehiških božanstev. Dva glavna bogova, ki sta jih častila, sta bila Huitzilopochtli (bog vojne in sonca) in Tlaloc (bog dežja) in oba sta imela tempelj na vrhu piramide Templo Mayor v osrčju Tenochtitlana. Drugi pomembni bogovi so bili Quetzalcoatl (bog pernate kače, ki je skupen mnogim mezoameriškim kulturam), Tezcatlipoca (vrhovni bog v Texcocu), Xipe Totec (bog pomladi in kmetijstva), Xiuhtecuhtli (bog ognja), Xochipilli (bog poletja in cvetja) , Ometeotl (bog ustvarjalec), Mictlantecuhtli (bog mrtvih) in Coatlicue (boginja zemlja-mati).

Ta včasih zmedena paleta bogov je vodila vse vidike človeškega stanja. Časovni okvir slovesnosti v čast teh božanstev so narekovali različni koledarji. Bil je 260-dnevni Azteški koledar, ki je bil razdeljen na 20 tednov, vsak od 13 dni, ki je nosil imena, kot sta Krokodil in Veter. Obstajal je tudi sončni koledar, sestavljen iz 18 mesecev, vsak po 20 dni. Pomembno je bilo tudi 584-dnevno obdobje, ki je pokrivalo vzpon Venere in je bilo treba upoštevati 52-letni sončni cikel. Premikanje planetov in zvezd je bilo skrbno opazovano (čeprav ne tako natančno, kot so to storili Maje) in so zagotovili motiv za poseben čas številnih verskih obredov in kmetijskih praks.

Oglas

Ni presenetljivo, da je imelo sonce za Azteke velik pomen. Verjeli so, da je svet šel skozi vrsto kozmičnih obdobij, vsak je imel svoje sonce, a je bil nazadnje vsak svet uničen in nadomeščen z drugim, dokler ni dosegla peta in zadnja starost - današnja za Azteke. To vesoljsko napredovanje je bilo čudovito predstavljeno v znamenitem sončnem kamnu, pojavljalo pa se je tudi na mnogih drugih mestih.

Bogove so častili s prazniki, pogostitvami, glasbo, plesom, okrasitvijo kipov, kajenjem, obrednim pokopom dragocenih dobrin, pokorami, kot so krvoprodaja, in žrtvovanjem živali. Človeško žrtvovanje, tako odraslih kot manj pogosto otrok, so pogosto izvajali, da bi metaforično "nahranili" bogove in jih osrečili, da se ne bi razjezili in otežili življenje ljudi s pošiljanjem neviht, suš itd. Ali celo samo zato, da bi obdržali sonce pojavljajo se vsak dan. Žrtve človeških žrtev so bile v vojnah običajno odvzete s strani poražencev. Tako imenovane "cvetlične vojne" so bile posebej sprejete za zbiranje žrtev. Najprestižnejša daritev so bili tisti bojevniki, ki so v bitki pokazali velik pogum. Žrtvovanje je lahko v treh glavnih oblikah: odstranjeno je bilo srce, žrtev je bila obglavljena ali pa se je žrtva morala boriti v brezupno enostranskem tekmovanju proti elitnim bojevnikom. There were also impersonators who dressed in the regalia of a specific god and at the climax of the ceremony were themselves sacrificed.

Architecture & Art

The Aztecs were themselves appreciative of fine art and they collected pieces from across their empire to be brought back to Tenochtitlan and often ceremonially buried. Aztec art was nothing if not eclectic and ranged from miniature engraved precious objects to massive stone temples. Monumental sculptures were a particular favourite and could be fearsome monstrosities such as the colossal Coatlicue statue or be very life-like such as the famous sculpture of a seated Xochipilli.

Oglas

Organised in guilds and attached to the main palaces, artisans could specialise in metalwork, wood carving or stone sculpture, with materials used such as amethyst, rock crystal, gold, silver, and exotic feathers. Perhaps some of the most striking art objects are those which employed turquoise mosaic such as the famous mask of Xuihtecuhtli. Common forms of pottery vessels include anthropomorphic vases in bright colours and of special note was the finely made and highly prized Cholula ware from Cholollan.

Aztec art depicted all manner of subjects but especially popular were animals, plants and gods, particularly those related to fertility and agriculture. Art could also be used as propaganda to spread the imperial dominance of Tenochtitlan. Examples such as the Sun Stone, Stone of Tizoc, and Throne of Motecuhzoma II all portray Aztec ideology and seek to closely correlate political rulers to cosmic events and even the gods themselves. Even architecture could achieve this aim, for example, the Templo Mayor pyramid sought to replicate the sacred snake mountain of Aztec mythology, Coatepec, and temples and statues bearing Aztec symbols were set up across the empire.

Strni

The Aztec empire, which controlled some 11,000,000 people, had always had to deal with minor rebellions - typically, when new rulers took power at Tenochtitlan - but these had always been swiftly crushed. The tide began to turn, though, when the Aztecs were heavily defeated by the Tlaxcala and Huexotzingo in 1515. With the arrival of the Spanish, some of these rebel states would again seize the opportunity to gain their independence. When the conquistadors finally did arrive from the Old World sailing their floating palaces and led by Hernán Cortés, their initial relations with the leader of the Aztecs, Motecuhzoma II, were friendly and valuable gifts were exchanged. Things turned sour, though, when a small group of Spanish soldiers were killed at Tenochtitlan while Cortés was away at Veracruz. The Aztec warriors, unhappy at Motecuhzoma's passivity, overthrew him and set Cuitlahuac as the new tlatoani. This incident was just what Cortés needed and he returned to the city to relieve the besieged remaining Spanish but was forced to withdraw on 30 June 1520 in what became known as the Noche Triste. Gathering local allies Cortés returned ten months later and in 1521 he laid siege to the city. Lacking food and ravaged by disease, the Aztecs, now led by Cuauhtemoc, finally collapsed on the fateful day of 13 August 1521. Tenochtitlan was sacked and its monuments destroyed. From the ashes rose the new capital of the colony of New Spain and the long line of Mesoamerican civilizations which had stretched right back to the Olmec came to a dramatic and brutal end.


I happened upon the changes being made to the high school level AP World History course beginning this fall. AP classes are a College Board scam (in my opinion) where students are led to believe they will earn college credit if they take this course in high school, and pass the test at a certain level (for which there is a fee). Not all colleges will accept this credit, but that information is not widely disseminated.

At any rate, the AP World History class, rather than starting in the Paleolithic era as in previous years, now begins at 1200 AD (they use CE, but I do not). Apparently, the development of societies, trade, etc., before 1200 is not pertinent to what happened afterward. I skimmed through the class guide, here is a PDF link if you are interested.

The first unit is The Global Tapestry, which begins with Asia, Dar al-Islam, South and Southeast Asia, State Building in the Americas, State Building in Africa, and then, developments in Europe (which alone of the geographic areas has a focus on coerced labor and serfdom – because of course it was only in Europe where slavery existed).

I’m not going to go through the entire course here, but the topics in the next unit, Network of Exchanges, is interesting as well: The Silk Roads, The Mongol Empire and the Making of the Modern World, Exchange in the Indian Ocean, Trans-Saharan Trade Routes, and Cultural and Environmental Consequences of Connectivity. (Ya figure they will cover cultural appropriation?)

This is how it’s done: Pretend that nothing of consequence happened before an arbitrary date (Egyptians? Greeks? Romans? The beginnings of Christianity?), then pretend that Western Civilization is not worth study. We shouldn’t wonder why our “best and brightest” do not know the significance of a thorough knowledge of history.

According to a 2017 press release from the College Board, 2.7 million students were expected to take 4.9 million AP exams that year (across 38 subjects).

These AP classes are a big deal in high schools, pushed by counselors, and can often affect grade point averages when weighted according to the rigor of the class. You are not considered to be a serious student if you do not take AP courses. One would have to homeschool or try to find something outside the public school system that has not bought into the College Board propaganda. Frankly, those options may simply not be available to everyone who would like to get their kids out of public schools.

Unfortunately, we must expect that the majority of our future college graduates in politics, law, etc. – the ones who will be running the country – will be steeped in this muck. I find it to be a very depressing outlook.


The Divine Campaigns, AD 1100-1200

I read this book along with all of the others in the TimeFrame series as my initial introduction to history. They run from Pre-History up to the early 1990&aposs in a chronological manner spanning some 25 volumes.

Reading this series will make your entire study of history much more meaningful and rewarding. It is perfect for anyone who needs an overarching understanding of how the different periods of human history developed and how each period and event relates to the context of the whole.

I knew alm I read this book along with all of the others in the TimeFrame series as my initial introduction to history. They run from Pre-History up to the early 1990's in a chronological manner spanning some 25 volumes.

Reading this series will make your entire study of history much more meaningful and rewarding. It is perfect for anyone who needs an overarching understanding of how the different periods of human history developed and how each period and event relates to the context of the whole.

I knew almost nothing of history when I found this series of books and I thoroughly devoured them.

This series of books provides a fantastic blueprint of the history of the world. It lays out the chronology and the geography of the major themes and events of world history in a very coherent, organized structure. Using this series as a starting place, every other aspect of history you will subsequently learn about will only add to what you've read here as you fill out your knowledge. Reading history books is not necessarily meaningful or intriguing without the ability to place what you're reading into a wider context. After reading this series you will be able to understand any element of history much better by realizing how it relates to the whole.

In sum, I cannot recommend these books enough for anyone wanting a compelling and comprehensive overview of world history. . več


10th Century, 901 to 1000

904 Recent emperors in China have been incompetent and the puppets of palace eunuchs. Many in China believe that these emperors have lost the Mandate of Heaven.

905 China's emperor loses control over Annam (northern Vietnam). There a village notable, Khuc Thua Du, has led a rebellion. The Chinese garrison at Tong Binh (Hanoi) is vanquished. Khuc Thua Du declares Annam autonomous.

911 The King of France, Charles III, gives Normandy to Vikings in return for the Viking leader, Rollo, a Norwegian, pledging his allegiance to him &ndash the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. Rollo and his Vikings (mostly Danes) are to defend his part of the coast of France from attacks by other Vikings.

912 Rollo and his Vikings become Christian.

924 Bulgarians overrun the lands of Prince Caslav Klonimirovic in what today is Serbia.

927 Prince Caslov drives away the Bulgarians and expands his kingdom, uniting what today is Serbia, Montenegro, East Herzegovina (Hercegovina) and Bosnia, then called Raska, Duklja, Travunija and Bosnia. This is said by Serbians to be the founding of Serbia. Orthodox Christianity is the state religion.

929 At Cordoba Spain, Abd-ar-Rahman, of the Umayyad dynasty, elevates himself from an emir to caliph, putting himself in rivalry with the Abbasid caliph at Baghdad.

950 Women in a Chinese harem invent playing cards.

960 In China, palace guards surround their commander and demand that he become emperor. The commander agrees but only if they vow to obey him and not plunder, not harm citizens and not harm the ruling family they are overthrowing. The troops agree. The new emperor is Taizu, who will begin the Song Dynasty.

970 Córdoba, on the Iberian Peninsula, is Europe's intellectual center and the world's most populous city. Constantinople is the only other European city in the top ten of the world's most populous cities. Córdoba is a Muslim city. Caliph al Hakam II has been in power since 961 and is contributing to the building of Cordoba's libraries. Córdoba has Europe's best university, with a spirit of free inquiry. It has medical schools. Work is being done also in math and astronomy. The city is tolerant toward its Jewish and Christian minority.

970 In China, paper money, invented there around 100 C.E., now dominates as the monatery unit.

970 Around this year in China, a ruler's consort who has bound her feet with strips of silk cloth performs a dance that impresses the aristocrat artsy crowd. Other court females adopt the practice. The binding of feet becomes a part of aristocratic culture for women expected to be playthings and entertainers rather than having the mobility needed for labor among common women.

975 Europeans begin to use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, et cetera), which are more convenient in arithmetic than Roman numerals.

980 Wealthy landowners in Japan have freed themselves from paying taxes. The government has little in revenues and has stopped supporting a national army. The wealthy landowners have been consolidating their various lands into single administrative units and creating their own armies. The men hired for these armies are to be known as samurai (men who serve), or bushi (warriors).

982 Erik the Red has been expelled from Iceland. He leads a group in the exploration of Greenland.

985 Erik the Red has returned to Iceland. With 25 ships filled with people and their belongings he heads back to Greenland. Many are lost at sea. With the 350 persons who arrive in Greenland, he establishes a settlement.

988 In Kiev, Prince Vladimir I adopts the religion of the Byzantine Empire as the state religion.

990 Between Timbuktu and the Atlantic coast, authoritarian kings have enriched themselves by forcing tradesmen to give them a cut in the gold that has been passing through their territory from mines to their south on their way northward. Their kingdom is called Ghana. Ghana extends its empire by conquering the Berber-dominated town of Awdaghost, to the northwest of Ghana, and Ghana is now at the peak of its power.

1000 Northern Maya cities begin to be abandoned. The Toltecs have arrived from central Mexico, and at what had been a Maya city, Chichen Itza, they build their own monuments.

1000 A few Turks are in Iran employed as soldiers. Now tribes of Turks start moving into Iran.

1000 Muslims looking forward to the future are expanding southward along the Somali coast in eastern Africa. The town of Mogadishu is founded, where Muslim merchants are to trade in gold dust from the south.

1000 For centuries Christians have been expecting the Second Coming of Jesus &ndash the Day of Judgment. Giving importance to a round figure such as 1000, and assuming that Jesus was born exactly one thousand years earlier, many believe this is the year that it will happen. The passing of the year leaves believers thanking God for the postponement of Armageddon.

1000 Per capita world Gross Domestic Product (according to today's economic historian Angus Maddison) is $435, measured in 1990 dollars. This (according to Maddison) is down from $444 in the year 1. And (according to Maddison) income levels in Europe are below those of Asia and North Africa.


The First Crusade, 1095-1100

Map of the Mediterranean World in 1092
1. The crusading movement was a significant event in the history of medieval Europe. They opened an era in which Western Europe came into direct contact with the great trade routes that united the civilizations of Eurasia For the first time since the fall of the Roman empire, western Europe was not isolated, but a part of a greater world. Many things flowed along these trade routes. Some were good, such as paper, the compass, medicines and spices, new crops and advances in mathematics. Some were not so good, such as leprosy, gunpowder, and bubonic plague.

Like most great events, there were many factors, some immediate and apparent, some basic and apparent, and some in between that went together to cause the people of western Europe to seek to conquest and hold the lands of the Eastern Mediterranean.

1. European society had survived the raids of the Magyars, Vikings, and Saracens, and its economy and society were recovering quickly. There was a new spirit of adventure apparent in the art, literature, an actions of the western Europeans. This was manifested at least partly in an increased popularity of pilgrimages -- journeys to visit distant holy places to worship there and view the relics of the saints. This was a religious activity, but the many of the pilgrims clearly enjoyed themselves like tourists in any age.

2. Europe was already in a period of expansion, and its capacity for war and conquest had grown during the years of fending off raiders from all direction. Most importantly from the standpoint of the crusades, the Italian city states had developed navies of merchant/fighting vessels that had seized control of the Mediterranean. They had reconquered Sicily and southern Italy from the Muslims, and there was a general sense that, like the Vikings and Magyars, the force of the Muslims was spent and that the way eastward lay open.

3. The spirit of religious reform that had led to the Investiture Controversy had been accompanied by an increase in popular spirituality. People were no longer to accept their religion passively many wanted to participate actively and to do something positive in honor of their god.

B.Intermediate Causes

Despite their growth, European society and economy were in a state of transition, and were unstable.

1. The aristocracy found themselves at relative peace, and were losing the importance they had enjoyed when they stood between Europe and its attackers. Their numbers were growing because there were no longer the losses in battle they had once sustained. They needed more land with which to endow their children and were beginning to fight with each other over the land that was available to them.

2. The kings were now working to reverse the decentralization that had been characteristic of the feudal age. They, and many who now looked to them for protection and leadership, wanted to reduce the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy and transfer that power to the central governments of the kingdoms, and they wanted to ends the civil wars caused by the aristocracy and establish a greater measure of law and order.

3. The Church had split into eastern and western organizations in 1054, and the pope's wanted somehow to heal that split. They were involved in the Investiture Controversy and were looking for allies, such as the still-prestigious eastern Roman emperor.

4. Churchmen generally recognized the new spirituality of the age and wished that there were some way that the Church could build upon this and assume the moral leadership of Europe and the Europeans.

5. The middle classes were now aware of the profits of the eastern trade, and were searching for some way to bypass the middlemen of the eastern empire and to trade directly with the Muslims. They knew that they could become rich by cutting out the Byzantines and taking for themselves the profits that the Byzantine merchants had been making on trade with them.

6. The economic system was in a state of transition, with some districts specializing in some "industrial" crops to the point that they did not raise enough grain to feed themselves, and were doing so before the transportation and internal trading system had advanced enough to distribute consumer goods efficiently. So there were frequent local famines. At the same time, agriculture was improving so greatly in productivity that many people no longer had work. The peasants needed more food and more land to cultivate. In 1095, a famine and epidemic in northern France and the Lowlands was causing widespread misery and the lower classes were some miracle to deliver them.

7. Pilgrims returning from the Holy Land were bring home stories of the atrocities being committed by the Seljuk Turks, masters of the Levant, against pilgrims, and of the way in which they were desecrating the places holy to Christians. This caused great outrage, in part because the average western European was better acquainted with the Bible lands than any place other than their own villages and towns. The Holy Land was the Christians "other home."

Since their victory at the Battle of Manzikert (1071), the Seljuk Turks had been pressing towards Constantinople and were now actually within sight of the city.

Alexius Comnenus, the eastern emperor, needed reinforcement. A couple of years previously, he had seen a group of western knights under the command of Count Robert of Flanders and returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. He had been impressed by their fighting ability and decided to try to hire about 1200 such warriors. he sent his request, and the reasons for it, to Pope Urban II.

Urban was pleased, since the Holy Roman Emperor had set up a rival "pope" as a manoeuver in the Investiture Controversy, but the eastern emperor had asked for help from him. He wanted to help, so, after a council held at Aurillac in France, he gave an impassioned speech to the laymen who had come to hear him. He said little about helping Alexius -- since the westerners did not like the Byzantines all that much -- and concentrated on the mission to free the Holy Land. He promised them the Church's blessing, the aid of God, and the certainly of being taking immediately into heaven for those who fell in the attempt.

The crowd was swept up in the call, and the cry of Deus vult! ("God wills it!") spread far and wide. Almost all classes and nationalities of Europeans responded in a movement far greater and more varied than Urban may have expected. It is unlikely that anyone realized how well this call suited the needs and predisposition of the Europeans of the time.

Against all odds, the first armed pilgrimage to the Holy Land was successful, and the Christians captured Jerusalem in 1100. They benefitted from the disunity among the Muslims and set up the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Although it was only ninety years before the Muslims had reorganized and taken back most of what they had lost, the effect of the crusaders' success was great.

A heightened sense of confidence animated the Europeans and, with new influences from the East, culture and intellectual life flourished. Western Europe, so some historians hold, came of age.


Wednesday, November 16, 2011

58. Bronze Mirror (Japan, AD 1100-1200)

Japan in Isolation!
What, you say? These don’t look like mirrors? They’re bronze and, at one time, were polished so that they worked as reflective surfaces modern mirrors, using glass on top of a shiny reflective surface, didn’t evolve until Venice during the Renaissance. These objects had, as they still have, an evocative, mysterious power: there’s something magical about being able to turn light around, to look at yourself in reverse. In Japanese culture at the time, mirrors were used both for defense—shields, or ways of attracting good fortune—and feared because they might be portals for mischievous demons, or might bring about bad luck.

Historically, the thing that’s important about this episode is that Japan, situated way out at the eastern end of the inhabited world, has often cut off interactions with its big neighbors to the west (China and Korea) and established a policy of isolationism. Which then results in, I believe the word MacGregor used was, an extremely 'idiosyncratic' culture. When you’re isolated, you can develop in directions different than the mainstream when everything is connected, bland homogenization is the result. If much of Japanese culture seems baffling or odd to an outsider, this geography, not to mention this geographically-inspired policy, is the reason.

Much, however, is familiar good old human nature at work. These mirrors, for instance, are manifestations of a courtly, aristocractic culture, which, like all such courtly, aristocratic cultures all over the world, became obsessed with aesthetics. The tea ritual, which developed in Japan into this elaborate thing, isn’t about replenishing the body’s water supply—it’s about showing off your grace and refinement and beauty. These mirrors would have been used by aristocrats in such a culture as part of looking their best when venturing forth in public. MacGregor draws our attention to The Tale of Genji, a novel from this Heian period, which (like Gilgamesh) I’ve always promised that someday I’ll get around to reading. I know a little more about the later, Samurai period, mostly from watching Kurasawa films. there’s a lot to know.

One other fun thing about these mirrors: they were found in a pool in a temple quite a ways from Kyoto, which was the capital at the time. People came and tossed their mirrors into the pool for good luck, as we toss coins into fountains. Who knows the origin of this human obsession with dumping magical things into water? The Nibelung horde, in the old legends, lies at the bottom of the Rhine for years and years Tolkien buries his Silmarils one in the deep, one in a volcanic crack in the earth, and the other transformed into the evening star, shining on Eärendil’s brow forever. I’m sure Ishmael opines at length on what this means, somewhere in Moby-Dick.


Hohokam in Arizona Build Platform Mounds

The Hohokams (the “vanished ones” in O’odham language) were Native Americans who lived in the southern parts of Arizona to the northern portions of the Mexican state of Sonora. The culture flourished between 100 BC and 1500 AD. They were the ancestors of modern day Pima people or Akimel O’odham who spoke a variant of the Uto-Aztecan language. The Hohokams were known for their innovative irrigation systems in areas that they settled, particularly the Gila and Salt River valleys. These canals allowed them to grow food that was enough to support their people and allowed them to thrive in an inhospitable environment. Their society was highly organized and complex—something which they shared with the other Southwest Culture peoples, such as the Mogollon and the Anasazi. Hohokam built Platform mounds between 1100 -1200 AD according to the Biblical Timeline with World History.

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Hohokam Platform Mounds

The Hohokam settlements showed a distinct Mesoamerican influence, as shown in the ballcourt and platform mounds they constructed. The earliest mounds were built around 800 AD, but the majority were constructed between 1150 and 1350 AD. Platform mounds were typically rectangular in shape which covered an area of hundreds to thousands of square feet and reached up to ten feet high. Many of these earthworks can be found in Pueblo Grande, Mesa Grande, Plaza Tempe, and Tres Pueblos. As much as fifty platform mounds were discovered in thirty Hohokam villages in recent years. At the culture’s peak, there must have been around a hundred platform mounds.

The Hohokams usually built the mounds along major canals, and initially did not build structures on top. By 1250, however, the Hohokams began to build homes for their leaders and priests, as well as temples on top of the mounds. The construction of these platforms was pretty simple. The Hohokam started by building a single cell made of adobe, granite, and sandstone. Other cells would be built around it, and the structure would be filled with trash and soil. The top was covered with a natural cement made of calcium carbonate called caliche. Structures would be built on top of the finished mound. The largest mounds in the Salt River Valley reached up to 30 feet high and were as big as a football field.


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