Nellie ScTug - Zgodovina

Nellie ScTug - Zgodovina


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Nellie
(ScTug: dp. 33; 1. 60 '; b. 14'; dr. 4 '; s. 8 k.)

Nellie, lesena vlečna naprava za parni vijak, 4. stopnje, je bila izstreljena na mornarišču Mare Island, San Franeisco, Kalifornija, leta 1876. Mornarica, ki jo je leta 1881 pridobila kot vlečna ladja po naročilu, je naslednjih trinajst let videla službo na otoku Mare. leta. Leta 1894 je bila izpisana iz pomorskega registra.


Nellie Bly

Naši uredniki bodo pregledali, kar ste oddali, in ugotovili, ali želite članek popraviti.

Nellie Bly, psevdonim od Elizabeth Cochrane, tudi črkovano Cochran, (rojen 5. maja 1864, Cochran's Mills, Pennsylvania, ZDA-umrl 27. januarja 1922, New York, New York), ameriška novinarka, katere svetovna tekma proti izmišljenemu zapisu ji je prinesla svetovno slavo.

Zakaj je Nellie Bly pomembna?

Nellie Bly je bila najbolj znana ameriška poročevalka 19. stoletja. Njena preiskava pogojev v bolnišnici za noro bolnike je sprožila ogorčenje, pravne ukrepe in izboljšanje zdravljenja duševno bolnih. Njeno potovanje po svetu v 72 dneh ji je prineslo še večjo slavo.

Je bila Nellie Bly poročena?

Nellie Bly se je leta 1895 poročila s proizvajalcem Robertom Seamanom. Seaman je umrl leta 1904 in Bly je prevzel njegovo podjetje Iron Clad Manufacturing Company. Potem ko je podjetje zaradi poneverbe utrpelo izgubo, se je Bly vrnil v novinarstvo in poročal iz Evrope med prvo svetovno vojno.

Zakaj je Nellie Bly spremenila ime?

Ko je Elizabeth Cochran leta 1885 začela z novinarstvom, se je zdelo neprimerno, da ženska piše pod svojim imenom. Cochranova urednica je izbrala ime "Nelly Bly" iz pesmi Stephena Fosterja. Vendar pa je ime tudi napačno napisal in postala je "Nellie Bly".

Elizabeth Cochran (kasneje je dodala zadnjo "e”V Cochran) prejel skromno formalno šolanje. Svojo kariero je začela leta 1885 v svoji rodni Pensilvaniji kot poročevalka za Pittsburgh Dispatch, na katero je uredniku poslala jezno pismo v odgovor na članek, ki ga je časopis natisnil z naslovom »Za kaj so dekleta dobra« (glede na članek ni veliko). Urednik je bil nad njenim pisanjem tako navdušen, da ji je dal službo.

Bilo je za Odprema da je začela uporabljati psevdonim "Nellie Bly", izposojen iz priljubljene pesmi Stephena Fosterja. Njeni prvi članki o pogojih med zaposlenimi dekleti v Pittsburghu, življenju v slumih in drugih podobnih temah so jo označili za poročevalko iznajdljivosti in skrbi. V času, ko je bil prispevek ženske v časopisu na splošno omejen na "strani žensk", je Cochrane dobila redko priložnost, da poroča o širših vprašanjih. V letih 1886–87 je nekaj mesecev potovala po Mehiki in pošiljala poročila o uradni korupciji in stanju revnih. Njeni ostro kritični članki so razjezili mehiške uradnike in povzročili njen izgon iz države. Članki so bili nato zbrani v Šest mesecev v Mehiki (1888).

Leta 1887 je Cochrane zapustil Pittsburgh in odšel v New York ter se zaposlil pri Josephu Pulitzerju New York World. Eno njenih prvih podvigov za ta dokument je bilo, da se je z pretvarjanjem norosti zavezala azilu na otoku Blackwell (zdaj Roosevelt). Njeno razkritje stanj med pacienti, objavljeno v Svet in kasneje zbrano v Deset dni v nori hiši (1887), je pospešila preiskavo azila s strani velike porote in pripomogla k potrebnim izboljšavam pri oskrbi bolnikov. Podobni novinarski gambiti so jo popeljali v delavnice, ječe in zakonodajno telo (kjer je razkrila podkupovanje v lobističnem sistemu). Bila je daleč najbolj znana novinarka svojega časa.

Vrhunec Cochranejeve kariere na Svet se je začelo 14. novembra 1889, ko je odplula iz New Yorka in premagala rekord Phileasa Fogga, junaka romance Julesa Verna Po vsem svetu v osemdesetih dneh. The Svet Zgodbo si je zgradil z dnevnimi članki in tekmovanjem ugibanja, na katerem bi se kdorkoli, ki se je najbolj približal imenu Cochranejevega časa obkroženja sveta, odpravil na pot v Evropo. Na natečaj je prispelo skoraj milijon prijav. Cochrane je jahal na ladjah in vlakih, v rikšah in sampanih, na konjih in burrojih. Na zadnjem krogu svojega potovanja se je Svet so jo s posebnim vlakom prepeljali iz San Francisca v New York, povsod so jo pričakali godbe na pihala, ognjemet in podobno. Njen čas je bil 72 dni 6 ur 11 minut 14 sekund. Trik jo je proslavil. Knjiga Nellie Bly: Okoli sveta v dvaindvajsetih dneh (1890) je bil velik ljudski uspeh, ime Nellie Bly pa je postalo sinonim za poročevalko.

Leta 1895 se je poročila z milijonarjem Robertom Seamanom, vendar je po njegovi smrti doživela finančne težave in se je vrnila k časopisnemu delu. New York Journal leta 1920.


Yosemite je kul, a ste videli bencinsko črpalko?

Ni lahko opisati neizmerne telesne lepote, ki obdaja Whoa Nellie Deli v kalifornijski dolini Owens. Tu se čas meri v sončni svetlobi in vodi. Ogromno, polsušno travišče, ki se odmika od vznožja vzhodne Sierre, je v veliki meri odvisno od letnega premoženja obeh, ki se merita v sezonskih obrokih. Zima je čas obetavnega obilja, saj domačini nestrpno preverjajo letne ravni snežnih odej, da bi dobili občutek, koliko vode bo na voljo za številne kmetije, rančeve in majhne podeželske skupnosti poleti. Sneg pomeni tudi zimski turizem, življenjsko pomemben finančni reševalec celoletnih domačinov, ki so pripravljeni ločiti smučarje in krpljarje od denarja na destinacijah, kot je Mammoth Mountain.

Pomlad prinaša sonce in vrnitev k drugačni vrsti turizma, saj se avtocesta 395 namesto tega napolni z družinami počitniških vozil in običajnim množico plezalcev, pohodnikov, ptičarjev, ribičev in avtodomarjev, ki se odpravijo v Yosemite in okoliške gozdove, ki skozi sever-jug Država. Zdi se, da si vsi želijo, da pohitijo in odidejo nekam drugam, da se sprostijo, ustavijo pa se samo zato, da napolnijo gorivo ali poberejo štruce ovčjega kruha iz pekarne 98-letnega Ericka Schata v Bishopu. Približno v tem času-običajno sredi aprila ali tako-spomladansko sonce spet sije na Tioga Gas Mart, ko izstopi iz lastne zimske zaustavitve, na vogalu 395 in 190, sicer znane kot Tioga Road. Severni prelaz prereže narodni park Yosemite od vzhoda proti zahodu, vendar je v večini zim snežen, zato je na trgu hibernacija.

Tioga Gas Mart zasidra prostrane travnate ravnice doline Owens.

Ko je odprt, se zdi Tioga Gas Mart v Lee Viningu z razdalje od avtomobilskega okna le nekaj več kot kraj za nabiranje prigrizkov, uporabo kopalnice ali opazovanje vodnega hot -doga, ki se vrti na jeklenih valjih pod parnim pokrovom. Toda na tej majhni bencinski črpalki in tržnici za pripravo je ena izmed najbolj priljubljenih (in okusnih) restavracij kjer koli v širši regiji Owens Valley: podeželska, zahodnjaško oblečena Whoa Nellie Deli. To je kraj za klepetanje domačinov s popotniki, za kopence, ki srkajo poceni vino poleg družin, ki so za vikend priletele s helikopterjem. Delikatesa je postala presečišče med divjim obrobjem kalifornijskega življenja daleč od velikega mesta in novim svetom kulinarične odličnosti, ki ga popotniki v Kaliforniji pričakujejo - tudi na bencinski črpalki sredi ničesar.

Vsako leto od leta 1997 se je na desetine sezonskih kuhinj in uslužbencev spomladi vrnilo na nekakšen večni poletni tabor v Whoa Nellie Deli, skupaj z živo glasbo in občasnim prepevanjem na posestvu. Mnogi longtimerji celo živijo v nastanitvah na kraju samem, parkirišče pa je občasno služilo kot prijazna in varna možnost prenočišča za nočitev v avtodomih. Kraj ima svojo privlačnost, izven bližnjega parka in starostnih znamenitosti okrožja Inyo, vsaj za tiste, ki so spoznali in vzljubili njegove posebne čare.

Whoa Nellie Deli je bolj robustna, kot dopušča od zunaj, s koktajli in vini ter velikim menijem osnovnih jedi, vsak s svojimi trdimi oboževalci. Tu je večna uspešnica sezonskih ribjih tacosov, preprostih hamburgerjev za tiste, ki se želijo napolniti po dolgem pohodu, ali bivolje mesne štruce, ki prikliče nazaj v potujoče zahodne čase. Prav tako je bolj popolno oblikovan kot le ustavitev na neki obcestni bencinski črpalki. Restavracija je leseno zavita kabinska izdelava z debelimi vrči za kavo in globokimi bordo kabinami le nekaj metrov stran od hodnika motornega olja. Ne pričakujte vrhunske fine dining: to je del kuhanja na podeželju, en del kosila iz 90. let, a vseeno narejeno z običajnim pogledom, ki vas bo napolnil in potisnil ven v zvezdnato noč.

Prefinjena oblika A-okvirja in leseni poudarki izboljšajo celotno elegantno notranjost postaje.

V toplejšem vremenu zbirka miz na prostem poskrbi za vrhunski piknik.

V kateri koli noči je raznolikost strank od nahrbtnikov, pohodnikov in potnikov, ki so utrujeni od ceste, do domačih, obremenjenih z vetrom, čuvarjev v parku in tistih, ki si želijo prvič ogledati znamenitosti severnega Yosemita. Glede na razpoložljivost hrane v dolini Yosemite in navzdol v Mammutu sami po sebi niso ujeto občinstvo, vendar so se zaradi takšnih ali drugačnih razlogov vsi znašli tukaj na tem grozljivem postajališču - in samo to je pomembno.

"Lahko bi postregli tudi z dobro hrano, če bomo postregli hrano," pravi Denise Molnar, ki je pred 24 leti pomagala pri izgradnji podjetja z očetom Dennisom Domaillejem in ostalo družino. Več kot desetletje je sodelovala z lokalnim kuharjem Mattom Toomeyjem, da bi ugotovila meni, ki ustreza sezoni, popotnikom in obiskovalcem.

Ribji tacosi so ena izmed podpisnih jedi na meniju, ki poudarja ambiciozno kuhanje na podeželju.

Toomey zdaj vodi svojo istoimensko restavracijo v Mammothu, vendar meni Whoa Nellie Deli še vedno nosi številne njegove stvaritve, vključno s tistimi ribjimi tacosi, ki jih običajno postrežejo z mango, slivovo in ananasovo salso. Obloge so priljubljene pri bolj zdravi množici pizza je hit pri otrocih. Za nekakšno toplo hrano, ki je potrebna v ramenskih mesecih pred začetkom poletja, deluje Toomeyjeva izvirna jambalaya, prav tako pa tudi tisti divji bivolji. Po določeni (zgodnji) uri pa navdušenje ne prihaja iz menija, ampak iz polnega lokala s svojimi velikodušnimi vlivanji, ki so kot nalašč za združevanje z živahnimi ovitki hišnega benda. V teh trenutkih, pijte v roki, taquitos pripravljeni, težko si omislite boljše mesto za stotine kilometrov v katero koli smer. Pijte samo odgovorno, glede na razdaljo med palico in posteljo.

Če pa morate pogledati kamor koli, je razgledno mesto nad bencinsko črpalko legendarno. Nepremičnina - lokalno znana kot Mobil ali Deli - sedi na cesti Vista Point Road, poimenovana po majhni asfaltirani zankasti poti, ki se hitro zavije navzgor in stran od črpalk do razgleda s širokim razgledom na jezero Mono spodaj. Skoraj milijon let staro kotlinsko jezero se od zgoraj počuti praiskonsko, obdano z apnenčastimi stolpi, znanimi kot lehnjak, in obrobljeno v luskasto umazano belem blatu in mulju. Jezero je bolj slano kot Tihi ocean in ljudje, ki zaidejo, lahko plavajo kot v Mrtvem morju.

Namestitev je preprosta: samo odprite loputo ali izvlecite nekaj zložljivih stolov in opazujte ptice selivke, ki se med potovanjem proti severu in jugu zanašajo na slano jezersko vodo. Tioga Gas Mart ponuja tudi mize za piknik in košček trave nekoliko pod razgledno točko, razgledi niso tako pometljivi, vetra pa tudi ne. Cestni potniki proti severu uporabljajo Whoa Nellie Deli kot postajo za kosilo na poti do vseh stvari Tahoe. Tisti, ki gredo proti jugu, uporabljajo stojnice restavracije za postavitev zemljevidov in načrtovanje naslednje pustolovščine. Imajo svojo izbiro. V okrožju Inyo, tik pod bencinsko črpalko s pogledom na jezero Mono, domujejo Mt. Whitney (najvišji vrh v spodnjih 48 državah), Badwater Basin (najnižja točka kopnega v Severni Ameriki) in Methuselah, škrlatna ščetina borovca, ki je dobesedno najstarejše živo bitje na Zemlji.

V visoki sezoni bencinska črpalka služi tudi kot center za obiskovalce tistih, ki potujejo po regiji.

Čeprav nikakor ne haute dining, je to morda najboljši obrok, ki ga boste pojedli na bencinski črpalki (ali kjer koli) v razdalji 100 milj ali več.

Podobno kot Metuzalem je trajna skupnost, ki jo najdemo pri Whoa Nellie, potrebovala čas za rast. Denise Molnar je za Eater San Francisco povedala, da po njeni oceni bencinska črpalka "verjetno dobi (a) več vprašanj kot center za obiskovalce" na cesti. To je povezava za domačine in popotnike, ki se iz leta v leto vračajo za dozo zgodovine in vrsto poletnega optimizma, ki narašča vsakič, ko Molnar pritisne ključe na vratih, da se sezona znova odpre.

Konec koncev je to lepota in dediščina Tioga Gas Mart in Whoa Nellie Deli. V večini noči je to kraj, ki se počuti bežno in večno, postanek v neskončni josemitski temi, ki bo vedno tam, vedno je bila tam, tako kot drevo Metuzalem ali El Capitan. Whoa Nellie Deli se tako ujema z okolico, zavito v star les in tako stoično kot pokrajina. Mesto ni postajališče, je mejnik, ki spreminja smer le z letnimi časi, ko lebdijo po koledarju Owens Valley. Svoje koledarje lahko označite z vračanjem Whoa Nellie, iz leta v leto, varno, saj veste, da ne gre nikamor, vsaj ne za nekaj časa. Čas se za to premika prepočasi, preveč predvidljivo. Pisatelji na internetu morda poskušajo z besedami ujeti kraj, kot je Whoa Nellie Deli, vendar je v njegovi tišini najbolje uživati ​​osebno. Verjemite mi, bil sem tam.

Samo razgledi s parkirišča so vredni postanka.

Shelby Holte je fotograf s sedežem v Velikonočni Sierri, ki ceni vse, kar je avanturo, ljubezen in divjino.


Nellie Arthur v Beli hiši

Nellie Arthur, hči predsednika Chesterja Arthurja, ni marala Bele hiše, ko se je tam prvič nastanila leta 1881. Zdelo se ji je "prevelika in osamljena". Sčasoma pa bo začela ljubiti življenje v Executive Mansionu. 1

Ellen Herndon Arthur se je rodila 21. novembra 1871 v New Yorku, starejši brat Chester, Jr., se je rodil leta 1864. Njena starša, Chester Alan Arthur in Ellen Herndon Arthur, sta se klicala Nellie. Življenje je njeni družini v kratkem času prineslo številne nenadne spremembe. Nelliena mama je januarja 1880 umrla zaradi pljučnice. Novembra 1880 je bil njen oče izvoljen za podpredsednika pod predsednikom Jamesom Garfieldom, ki je nastopil funkcijo marca 1881. Ko je predsednik Garfield šest mesecev pozneje umrl, je Nelliein oče postal predsednik Združenih držav.

Prehod v življenje v Washingtonu je bil za Nellie težak. Potem ko je v New Yorku praznovala svoj deseti rojstni dan, se je na silvestrovo z vlakom odpravila v prestolnico, da bi se naslednji dan udeležila tradicionalnega sprejema Bele hiše. Deset dni pozneje je tam pripravila večerjo za nekatere svoje prijatelje, a njeno razpoloženje je bilo mračno, nekaj dni kasneje pa se je vrnila v New York. Mediji so prišli do besede, da je mlada Nellie Arthur nesrečna v Beli hiši. Novinarji so opazovali, ali se bo lahko prilagodila.

Nellie se je aprila vrnila v Belo hišo in pogosto je morala sodelovati na javnih prireditvah. Njena soba je bila blizu očetovega in bratovega, na severni strani Bele hiše, »lepo opremljena, a zelo preprosta pri sestankih«. Novinarji so spremljali Nelliein vsak korak in pisali o tem, kako je videti in kaj nosi. Eden je rekel, da ima "velike rjave oči in kratke rjave lase in da je debela kot kerubin." 2

Kmalu pa je Nellie našla stvari za uživanje. Spoznala je prijateljico Miss Botts, ki so jo pogosto videli igrati z Nellie in psom španjelom po imenu Franco. Prav tako je precej časa skrbela za konje v hlevu v Beli hiši in se naučila jahati na nežnem črnem konju svoje matere. Nekoč so poleti 1882 novinarji videli Nellie in gospodično Botts, ki so »precej polne otroškega navdušenja« hitele k vratom Bele hiše, da bi videle nekaj novih očetovih konj. 3

Jeseni je Nellie obiskovala šolo v Washingtonu, kjer je spoznala nove prijatelje. Njena prva božična sezona je bila veselje, saj je z očetom bivala v Domu vojakov nekaj kilometrov severno od Bele hiše, medtem ko se je občasno vračala v izvršni dvorec na glasbene tečaje. Javnosti se je zdela veliko bolj srečna in sproščena. "Medtem ko je bilo lani videti kot nekoliko občutljiv otrok," je dejal en opazovalec na božični večer, "ima zdaj sveža, svetla barva na licih in njene rjave oči se svetijo od otroškega uživanja v božičnem času." Naslednji dan se je »ves dan mudila naokoli s polnimi rokami punčk. . . ima veliko in zelo zanimivo družino punčk, najstarejša ima veliko zibelko, ki stoji ob njeni postelji. 4

Nellie je kmalu vodila Belo hišo. Ko se je vreme izboljšalo, sta bila s prijatelji vidna skoraj vsako popoldne in se sprehajala po travniku Bele hiše. Na javne prireditve je lahko prihajala in odhajala, kakor je hotela. Aprila 1883 je švedska sopranistka Christina Nilsson obiskala Belo hišo in nastopila na klavirju v zeleni sobi. Med igranjem se je Nellie "spotaknila v sobo", pevka pa je ustavila njen nastop in dekle vprašala, ali bi želela zahtevati pesem. Nellie je rekla, da želi slišati "Prosim, daj mi peni." Nilsson se je pridružil francoski baladi, medtem ko je Nellie "stala, kot da bi bila omamljena." Pevka je nato iztegnila roke in dekle vprašala: "Se ti ne zdi, da je to vredno denarja?" 5

Ni se vsa zabava Nellie odvijala v Executive Mansionu. Poleti 1883 je potovala gor in dol po vzhodni obali od enega obmorskega letovišča do drugega, ki so ga prevažala plovila ameriške mornarice. Novinarji so omenili "veseli čas", ki ga je uživala vso sezono, in pompoznost in slovesnost, s katero so jo premestili iz letovišča v letovišče, zato so jo klicali "princesa Nellie". 6

Predsednik Chester Arthur beri hčerki Nellie v Beli hiši. Iz izdaje Lesliejevega ilustriranega časopisa iz leta 1885.

Čeprav je uživala privilegije, da je predsednikova hči, je Nellie nosila močan občutek odgovornosti za manj srečne. Jeseni 1883 je ustanovila božični klub, v katerem je bilo petindvajset otrok kot članov in sama kot predsednica. Vsak član je prispeval sredstva za postavitev velikega božičnega drevesa z dragimi okraski, ki bi ga predstavili na dobrodelnem balu za ogrožene otroke v Washingtonu. Nellie je klub vodil precej učinkovito. »Gospodična Arthur je vzorni mali predsednik,« je komentiral en časopis, »ki je stol napolnila z dostojanstvom in redko dobro presojo ter podpisala njeno ime, Ellen H. Arthur, s toliko dostojanstva, kot ga njen oče vpisuje v podpis uradnih dokumentov na velikem Bela hiša." 7

Božični klub je kmalu postal velika operacija, celo večja, kot je nameravala Nellie. 28. decembra 1883 je klub gostil dogodke na štirih različnih lokacijah v Washingtonu, DC, ki so nudili zabavo za več kot 2000 bolnih in brezdomnih otrok. Predsednik se je udeležil dogodka v orožnici National Rifles, vendar je bila zvezda predstave Nellie, oblečena v belo čipkasto krilo: pela je z dekliškim zborom, čakala na mizah in razdeljevala darila - vključno z okraski dreves. "Njeni nedotaknjeni maniri in zanimanje za vse, kar se je dogajalo, so ponazarjali duh, ki je oživil celoten klub," so poročali iz Washingtona, D.C., Večerna zvezda. 8

Ko je bila Bela hiša prevelika, je kmalu postala premajhna za Nellie. Da bi zagotovila več prostora za igro, je pod vzhodnim vhodom zgradila majhno hišo. Narejena iz nepobarvanih plošč iz pepela, prekritih z mirto in bršljanom in je spominjala na »pravljično vrtnico«, je postala znana kot »sedež gospodične Nellie Arthur in njenih punčk«. Hiša je imela dvoja vrata in štiri okna z muslinskimi zavesami, prilepljenimi s trakovi, pisarno, kavčem, pisalno mizo, posteljo, slikami, turško preprogo in seveda gomilami punčk in igrač. Majhna mizica iz ebenovine je stala v kotu, kjer sta se Nellie in njeni prijatelji zbrali na "lutkarskih govoricah" in "šibkem čaju". Čeprav sta se dekleta v hiši dobro razumela, je Nellie delovala kot zadnji razsodnik za vsa vprašanja družbenega precedensa, brez pravice do pritožbe. Sam predsednik je rad gledal otroke z okna svoje pisarne v Beli hiši, vendar ga ni mogel obiskati, ker je bil prevelik, da bi prilegel skozi vrata. 9

Nellie je imela tudi nekaj štirinožnih spremljevalcev. Eden je bil skye terier po imenu Toddie. Pes je ubogal samo Nellie in kljuboval vsem ostalim, celo predsedniku. Ko je predsednik Arthur poskušal pobožati Toddieja, ga je pes ugriznil. Drug razvajen hišni ljubljenček je bil indijski poni iz kalika, ki ga je indijanski poglavar Arapahoe poleti 1883 podaril predsedniku in ga podaril Nellie. Trenirala je "ljubko malenkost", da jo vleče v pasji voziček. 10

Do leta 1884, svoje zadnje celo leto v Beli hiši, je Nellie postala profesionalka pri obiskovanju javnih dogodkov. Junija istega leta se je povzpela na skoraj dokončan spomenik Washington in na vrh postavila kamen. Njen »jasen, srebrn glas« in »vesel smeh« sta postala stalnica Bele hiše in bila je ljubljenka osebja - nenazadnje tudi zato, ker Nellie ni bila videti razvajena in je z vsemi ravnala vljudno in spoštljivo. 11

Predsednik Chester A. Arthur.

Zbirka Bele hiše/Zgodovinsko združenje Bele hiše

Nekega dne je Nellie jahala z očetom, ko je njuna kočija skoraj udarila v hendikepirano afroameriško dekle, ki ni bilo poškodovano, ampak močno prestrašeno. Predsednik Arthur se je odpravil z računom za 5 dolarjev, vendar je Nellie skočila iz vozička in nekaj časa ostala pri dekletu. Naslednji dan je Nellie otroku poslala šopek in sveženj igrač. Nato je občasno obiskala dekliški dom brez kakršnega koli obveščanja in ji še naprej pošiljala igrače tudi potem, ko njen oče ni bil več predsednik. 12

Nellie Arthur je 21. novembra 1884 s šestimi prijatelji praznovala svoj trinajsti rojstni dan v Domu vojakov in decembra znova predsedovala božičnemu klubu. Takrat se je njen oče odločil, da se ne bo več potegoval za predsednika. The Baltimorsko sonce je obžaloval, da bo morala "zapustiti Belo hišo ravno v starosti, ko bo najverjetneje uživala in cenila svoj položaj, in ker je bila na njenem mestu precej bolj razumen otrok, kot bi bila povprečna deklica, so njeni šolski prijatelji žal mi je, da sem jo izgubil. " 13

Na zadnji dan predsednika Arthurja v Beli hiši, 4. marca 1885, je Nellie odšla s Toddiejem v naročju. Ko se je ustavila v severnem portiku, se je obrnila k zbranemu osebju in, držeči psa nad glavo, rekla: "Poslovi se od vseh, Toddie." Pes se je v slovo nekoliko lajal, nato pa je Nellie Arthur skočila v čakalno kočijo. Zaposleni in javnost so objokovali njen odhod iz Bele hiše kot »eno prosto mesto, ki ga ni mogoče zapolniti«. 14


Vsebina

Hanby je skladbo sestavil, ko je leta 1856 obiskoval univerzo Otterbein v Westervilleu v Ohiu, kot odgovor na stisko pobeglega sužnja po imenu Joseph Selby ali Shelby. Oče Benjamina Hanbyja, škof William Hanby, minister Združenih bratov, ki je bil aktiven na podzemni železnici, je poskušal zbrati denar za osvoboditev Selbyjeve ljubljene. Odnos do angleške ljudske pesmi Maggie May, ki ima isto glasbo in podobna besedila, ni jasen.

Melodijo je pozneje uporabil pevec glasbene dvorane Geordie Joe Wilson za postavitev svoje pesmi Geordie hinny naj ostane pri nogah miren in s strani sindikalnega aktivista in člana industrijskih delavcev sveta Ralpha Chaplina Commonwealth of Toil. [1]

Posnetek Louisa Armstronga in The Mills Brothers je bil leta 1937 zelo priljubljen in dosegel lestvice dneva. [2] Maxine Sullivan je pesem za Vocalion posnela 22. oktobra 1937 [3], Bing Crosby pa 25. decembra 1938. za Decca Records. [4]

Melodija Nelly Grey je (skoraj enaka) podlaga za melodijo Faded Love, uspešnice Bob Wills iz leta 1950. [5] [6] [7]

Na stari obali Kentuckyja je nizka, zelena dolina.
Kjer sem preživel veliko srečnih ur,
A-sedenje in petje ob vratih male koče,
Kje je živela moja draga Nelly Grey.

Refren
Oh! moja uboga Nelly Grey, odpeljali so te,
In svojega ljubljenega ne bom več videl
Sedim ob reki in ves dan jokam.
Kajti odšli ste s stare obale Kentuckyja.

Ko se je na goro povzpela luna in so sijale tudi zvezde.
Potem bi vzel svojo ljubljeno Nelly Grey,
In plavali bi po reki v mojem malem rdečem kanuju,
Medtem ko bi se moj banjo sladko igral.

Nekega večera sem jo šel k njej, toda "Odšla je!" pravijo sosedje.
Belec jo je privezal s svojo verigo
Odpeljali so jo v Gruzijo, da bi ji uničila življenje,
Ko se trudi v bombažu in trsu.

Moj kanu je pod vodo, moj banjo pa je brez žice
Utrujen sem več živeti
Moje oči bodo gledale navzdol in moja pesem bo opevana
Medtem ko ostajam na stari obali Kentuckyja.

Moje oči so zaslepljene in ne vidim poti.
Hark! nekdo trka na vrata.
Oh! Slišim angele, ki kličejo, in vidim svojo Nelly Grey.
Slovo od stare obale Kentuckyja.

Refren
Oh, draga moja Nelly Grey, tam zgoraj v nebesih pravijo,
Da mi te nikoli več ne bodo vzeli.
Prihajam-prihajam-prihajam, ko angeli razčistijo pot,
Zbogom stara obala Kentuckyja!


Vsebina

Nellie Owens Edit

Owens se je rodil 2. avgusta 1869 [2] dve leti po Lauri Ingalls. Nellieina starša, William (1836–1920) in Margaret (1836–1908) Owens sta, kot opisuje Ingalls, vodila lokalno trgovsko podjetje v Walnut Groveju v Minnesoti. [3]

Kasneje v njenem življenju, okoli leta 1883, se je družina Owens preselila v Kalifornijo verjetno po poti Oregon. Leta 1891 so odšli v Tillamook v Oregonu, kjer je Nellie poučevala v šoli in se leta 1893 poročila [3] Henry Francis Kirry (1869–1951). Preselili so se v Bay City v Oregonu in imeli tri otroke Zolo (1894–1986), Lloyda (1896–1961) in Leslieja (1900–1931). Kmalu so si Kirries spet spremenili dom, ko so se leta 1899 preselili v Rainier v Oregonu. [3] Njen brat Willie je zaradi eksplozije petarde oslepel, obiskoval šolo za slepe, se poročil in imel tudi tri otroke.

Zdi se, da ni nobenih znakov, da bi Laura kdaj več videla Nellie Owens, potem ko je Laurina družina leta 1879 zapustila Walnut Grove. Nellie je umrla 2. novembra 1949 v Oregonu in je pokopana na pokopališču Forest View v Forest Groveju v Oregonu. [2] [3]

Genevieve Masters Urejanje

Drugo dekle, Genevieve Masters, se je rodilo 12. novembra 1867 v Hornbyju v okrožju Steuben v New Yorku [2] in je bila razvajena hči nekdanje Laurine učiteljice. Genevieve je nosila lepo krojena oblačila in imela je vpadljivo blond kodraste lase, tako kot jih je imela "Nellie Oleson". Genevieve se je neprestano hvalila, koliko bolj pravilne in "civilizirane" so stvari na "vzhodu". S svojim vrhunskim odnosom je bila Genevieve veliko bolj grda kot Nellie Owens, Laura in Genevieve pa sta postali ostri tekmici, tako akademsko kot družbeno.

Genniejeva družina se je kmalu po družini Ingalls preselila v De Smet, vendar se družina Owens ni preselila. Zato je "Nellie" iz Malo mesto na preriji je najverjetneje Genevieve Masters. Laura je v svojem "Pismu otrokom", napisanem pozno v življenju (nekakšno pismo, poslano stotinam otrok, ki so ji pisali mesečno), zapisala: "Nellie Oleson ... se je preselila nazaj na vzhod in ni živela veliko let. " [ potreben citat ] Laura je v tem pismu očitno govorila o Genevieve Masters, saj je Nellie Owens živela do 80. leta. Masters se je poročil z Williamom Grahamom V. Renwickom (1864-1924) in imel eno hčer, Margaret (1900-1982). [2]

Genevieve je umrla zaradi pljučnice 7. novembra 1909 v Chicagu [2], le 5 dni pred 42. rojstnim dnevom. Njene ostanke so prinesli nazaj v De Smet v Južni Dakoti in pokopali na lokalnem pokopališču.

Stella Gilbert Edit

Tretje dekle, Stella Gilbert, rojena maja 1864, je živela na zahtevku severno od Ingalls v De Smetu. Po poročanju je bila zelo privlačna in zelo jo je zanimal Almanzo Wilder. Mogoče je bila deklica, ki ga je prepričala, da jo popelje na več vožnji z vozički, ki so bili opisani v Ta srečna zlata leta. Almanzo, ki se ni zavedal konflikta med Stello (Nellie v knjigah) in Lauro, se je sčasoma zavedel Stellinega strahu pred konji (kar se mu je zgražalo). Poleg tega je Laura Almanzu na koncu postavila ultimatum v zvezi s Stello in Almanzova povabila k Stelli, da se jim pridruži na vožnjah, so se ustavila. To je bil zadnji nastop "Nellie Oleson" v seriji. [ potreben citat ]

Stellin starejši brat je bil Dave Gilbert, pogumni 17-letnik, ki je zelo tvegano tekel na jezero Preston na ozemlju Dakote na svojih konjskih vpregah med viharji, da bi vzel odhodno pošto in prinesel vso pošto, kot je opisala Laura v Dolga zima.

Stella je umrla leta 1944 v starosti 80 let. [2]

Male hišne knjige Urejanje

Nellie Oleson se je pojavila v treh romanih Little House Ingalls Wilder: Na bregovih Plum Creeka (1937), Malo mesto na preriji (1939) in Ta srečna zlata leta (1943) - četrti, sedmi in osmi v seriji. Laura je v dveh vmesnih romanih stara od 13 do 15 let. Na bregovih Plum Creeka sam je postavljen v Minnesoti, blizu Walnut Groveja, kjer je postavljena dolgoletna televizijska serija. V tem romanu je Laura stara od 7 do 9 let. [4] [ potrebno pojasnilo ]

Igra tudi Oleson Nellie Oleson sreča Lauro Ingalls, knjiga Tui T. Sutherland (kot Heather Williams), ki jo je izdala HarperCollins leta 2007. Povzetek kataloga v kongresni knjižnici je "Bogata, razvajena Nellie Oleson je srečna le, če je v središču pozornosti, zato se počuti jezna in izpuščen, ko se Laura Ingalls, revna deklica, preseli v Walnut Grove in jo objamejo Nellieini prijatelji in učiteljica. " [5] Nellie Oleson sreča Lauro Ingalls je ena izmed več deset razširitev serije Little House, objavljenih v devetdesetih letih. [ potreben citat ]

Mala hiša v preriji televizijska serija Edit

The Mala hiša knjige so bile kasneje prilagojene v dolgoletno televizijsko serijo. Nellie Oleson, ki jo je igrala igralka Alison Arngrim, je bila manipulativni, duhovit in oster lik v televizijski oddaji NBC, Mala hiša v preriji. Njena starša, Nels in Harriet Oleson, sta imela v lasti trgovsko blago v majhnem mestu Walnut Grove, ki je bilo postavljeno v povojni Minnesoti. Na začetku serije je lik Nellie zelo podoben njenemu kolegu iz knjig - predvsem kot je upodobljen v Na bregovih Plum Creeka. Imela je dolge, dovršeno kodrane lase, delovala je zelo prisrčno in razvajeno - a spodaj je lahko pokazala začarano in manipulativno osebnost. Nellie je vzela za seboj ljubečo mamo Harriet (Katherine MacGregor), oče Nels (Richard Bull) pa je bil s svojimi dvema otrokoma bolj strog in ni imel tolerance do Nellienih pogosto krutih zvijač. Nels in Harriet sta pogosto bila v sporu glede vzgoje Nellie in Willieja (Jonathan Gilbert). Harrietina asertivnost je pogosto zmagala, čeprav se Nellie ni vedno mogla izogniti svojemu vedenju. Na primer, v epizodi z naslovom "The Cheaters" gospa Oleson izve, da jo je Nellie prevarala in jo začela udarjati s suknjičem, medtem ko jo je preganjala iz šolskega dvorišča. [ potreben citat ]

Arngrimov značaj je v seriji pridobil na pomenu (prav tako kot vloge celotne družine Oleson), saj je služila kot popoln antagonist pošteni, moški Lauri Ingalls, ki jo je igrala Melissa Gilbert. Nellie and Laura feuded during their school years together, which was at times comically paralleled with quarreling between the two girls' mothers, Harriet Oleson and Caroline Ingalls (Karen Grassle).

After Nellie graduated from school, her mother Harriet bestowed her with her own restaurant and hotel. At first, Nellie balked, showing great incompetence in the hospitality business. Eventually, Nels and Harriet hired Percival Dalton (played by Steve Tracy) to help Nellie learn how to cook and run the restaurant. During this time, Nellie began maturing and mellowing — thanks to Percival's work with her and Nels' values partially winning out over Harriet's — and fell in love with Percival. The two eventually married, and Nellie gave birth to twin children (Benjamin and Jennifer). [ potreben citat ]

Nellie becomes friendly with Laura in her adult years and Laura attended her wedding. Before Nellie takes off for her honeymoon, she throws the bouquet to Laura. In the episode "Come Let us Reason Together", Laura's mother Caroline helped deliver Nellie's twin babies. [ potreben citat ]

Arngrim left the series at the end of the seventh season. Nellie's resulting departure was explained by having her move with Percival and their twins to New York to run the family business when Percival's father falls ill the move is made permanent when Percival's father dies. After Nellie's departure became permanent, the Olesons adopted a daughter named Nancy (played by Allison Balson), who bore a striking resemblance to Nellie, although she had a nastier and meaner disposition than Nellie. Nellie—who retained her pleasant personality seen in her later years—returned in the ninth season and met Nancy, who briefly ran away from home when she (mistakenly) believed that her adoptive parents loved Nellie more than her. When Nellie first meets Nancy and sees how she acts, she asks her parents in shock: "I know I was temperamental at her age, but I wasn't to slab. was I?" They all start to laugh, then they realize she was as bad. [ potreben citat ]

Compared to the book On the Banks of Plum Creek, the series presented Nellie Oleson as a much more prominent character. In the books, Nellie's family members are very minor characters, whereas the Olesons became major figures on the series, with several episodes focusing on Nellie or her family. Eventually, the "villainous duo" of mother Harriet and daughter Nellie proved to be very popular with viewers for their often evil, yet humorous, antics. [ potreben citat ]

Other screenings Edit

  • Although the character of Nellie does not appear in any of the Beyond the Prairie: The True Story of Laura Ingalls Wilder movies, in Part 1 there is a certain Patsy Robbins girl (played by Jenny Dare Paulin), who clearly reminds of Nellie. [6]
  • V Little House on the Prairie musical, Nellie Oleson was played by Sara Jean Ford and Kate Loprest.

The sketch comedy group The Nellie Olesons took their name after the character. [ potreben citat ] [7] [8]


The Ambition of Nellie Tayloe Ross

On Oct. 4, 1924, Nellie Tayloe Ross watched as her husband’s coffin was lowered into the ground. William B. Ross had been governor of Wyoming for only a year and 10 months. Twelve days earlier he had suffered severe abdominal pains after a day making speeches in Laramie. It was appendicitis. He died Oct. 2.

Nellie was devastated. She managed not to show it in public when her husband’s body lay in state under the Capitol rotunda in Cheyenne, during the funeral at St. Mark’s Episcopal Church, and finally at the graveside. But when she was alone with her brother, she broke down. George Tayloe had come quickly from Tennessee to be with her after William’s death. Nellie couldn’t stop talking about old times, George wrote home to his wife. “When she gets on the past it is terrible for her and I assure you hard on the listeners,” George added.

That afternoon, back at the governor’s mansion, the chairman of the state Democratic Committee knocked on the door and asked a delicate question: Would Mrs. Ross consider running for governor herself? The election was a month away.

Over the next few days, as she and George went around and around on the question of whether she should run, he came to know his sister better. Not only was she shocked and sorrowful over her husband’s sudden death, she was also ambitious. And if she did run, they both understood, ambition was a quality she’d have to disguise. It just wasn’t seemly for a woman to look ambitious.

Nellie Tayloe Ross was a southern woman, and like many southern women she was gracious, funny and strongly loyal to her family and friends. She was also very smart. She came from Missouri, the border South, a complicated place for people like her who were born not long after the Civil War. Nellie came out of that place and time a complicated woman.

Nellie’s mother’s family, the Greens, owned a large plantation and 100 slaves in northwest Missouri before the Civil War. Their mansion was burned during the conflict, and the family never really recovered. When Nellie’s father, James Tayloe, married her mother, Lizzie Green, shortly after the war, he was soon supporting his wife, her younger sisters and her widowed mother.

He built a smaller house, farmed as much of the land as he could, but made ends meet by slowly selling off pieces of it. Nellie, one of six Tayloe children to live to adulthood, was born in 1876. Finally, James Tayloe sold the place, paid off the mortgage and back taxes, and in 1884 moved the family to Kansas. He opened a grocery store in Miltonvale.

At first, the nearby farms did well and the town prospered. James Tayloe built a large house for his family. But by the end of the 1880s, drought and grasshopper plagues had brought hard times. In 1889, when Nellie was 13, her mother died. Other Green relatives by then had moved to Omaha, Neb, but the Tayloes stayed in Kansas, watching their town and business decline. Nellie finished high school in 1892. Her father eventually lost the store and the house, and the Tayloes moved to Omaha. James Tayloe went to work for his brother-in-law as a bank clerk.

Nellie began teaching piano students and gradually put together two years’ more schooling for herself—enough for a job teaching kindergarten. She taught first in an Italian neighborhood and later in a Polish one, learning not just how to teach, but how big organizations work—in this case, the Omaha public schools.

Later, when she became famous, Nellie let the world believe she’d had a cultivated, upper-class upbringing in Missouri. The truth was more interesting. On the farm and in the store, she learned about hard work. Teaching and running the Tayloe household, she learned to help other people work hard, too.

She also acquired a taste for fine things, mixed with a skepticism about wealth. Money, she knew, might melt away any time. All her life she worried about it. And somehow, it seems fair to say, her father’s business failures, her mother’s death and the family moves all led to an uncertainty in her life that fed her ambition.

William Ross and politics

About 1900, Nellie met William Bradford Ross, a handsome young lawyer, while visiting Tayloe relatives in Paris, Tenn. Both families, Rosses and Tayloes, had strong religious backgrounds, came to Tennessee from North Carolina early in the 1800s, and were ruined financially by the Civil War.

Nellie returned to Omaha, she and William began corresponding and their friendship deepened. Partly for his health, and partly out of the need to strike out on his own, William Ross moved to Cheyenne in 1901. He arrived the day before President McKinley died from an assassin’s bullet, and Theodore Roosevelt, a Republican, became the first Progressive president of the United States.

William B. Ross was a Democrat with political ambitions. In the 1890s, the Populist Party emerged from the more radical, agricultural wing of the Democrats. Populists felt they badly needed lower interest rates on the money they borrowed to keep their farms going each year and lower railroad rates on the crops they shipped to market. In the minds of the Populists and the Democrats, the Republicans were the men that lived in the great cities of the northeast, who owned the banks and the railroads and charged too much for everything.

Populism failed, but its resentments survived and merged with the sensibilities of Americans who felt that poor and middle-class people needed protection from the power of big corporations. Out of these feelings came the Progressive movement, which sought to break up monopolies, protect the poor and weak, make government more effective, provide good drinking water and good sanitation in cities and pure food and safe drugs for everyone.

Three presidents considered themselves Progressives: Republicans Theodore Roosevelt and William Howard Taft and Democrat Woodrow Wilson. William Ross considered himself a Progressive Democrat.

In 1902, William and Nellie were married. Twins George and Ambrose were born the following spring. Alfred was born in 1905, but died when he was 10 months old. A fourth brother, William Bradford Ross II, called Brad, was born in 1912.

William, meanwhile, built up his law practice and started a political career. In 1904 he ran for local prosecutor, and won, but lost when he ran again in 1906. In 1908 he lost a race for the state Senate by six votes. In 1910 he ran for the U.S. House of Representatives and lost again. After that, he and Nellie agreed: no more politics.

Nellie, meanwhile, was already leading a full-tilt social life when her boys were small and her husband’s income as a lawyer was not yet secure. They entertained more lavishly than they could afford. William borrowed money. Sometimes he was short‑tempered and jealous of men who paid attention to Nellie at parties.

Nellie also socialized as a member of the Cheyenne Woman’s Club, where women met to give and hear talks on cultural and political subjects. In later years, Nellie often said she learned her public poise and public-speaking skills there.

In 1918, with thousands of young Wyoming men fighting in France in World War I, William’s again tried politics, despite his earlier agreement with his life. He lost a close race for the Democratic nomination for governor. In 1919, the nation passed a constitutional amendment prohibiting alcohol, and in 1920, the nation passed another amendment giving women the right to vote.

Wyoming was changing, too. After the war, drought and depression gripped the state. Farms failed, ranches failed and banks failed. The oil business kept booming, briefly. But producers of Wyoming oil bribed top members of Republican President Warren G. Harding’s cabinet in order to drill for government-reserved oil that was supposed to stay in the ground. This Teapot Dome Scandal damaged Republicans everywhere, and 1922 looked as though it might be a good year for Democrats.

Governor William Ross

Again, despite Nellie’s objections, William Ross yielded to pressure from supporters who thought he had a good chance, and ran again for governor. It was very close, but he won. The Rosses moved into the governor’s mansion.

Almost immediately, Governor Ross began putting his Progressive ideas into action. He got the Legislature to offer low-interest loans to farmers. Because of the depression, state funds had decreased. Ross found ways to spend less, but he also argued that since big corporations, which owned such a high percentage of Wyoming’s wealth, were still untaxed, more taxes fell unfairly on everyone else. He persuaded the Legislature to pass a constitutional amendment to tax coal, oil and minerals. Voters failed to approve the measure later, however. And Ross managed to increase substantially the royalties the state collected each year from production in the Standard Oil Company’s Salt Creek fields north of Casper.

Nellie gave her husband steady support, and he consulted her daily on political questions. Now first lady of Wyoming, she loved the social and political life, yet continued to find it frighteningly expensive. The twins attended boarding schools in the South. Bradford, 10, was still at home. The governor’s salary of $6,000 per year never seemed to stretch far enough, and William’s debts never went away.

Deciding to run

In the days after William’s funeral in October 1924, Nellie’s brother George and other friends advised her not to run for governor. Wyoming was a Republican place and probably always would be, they argued, and the governorship in people’s minds was a man’s job. George feared what a defeat at the polls would do to her emotionally—and she did, too.

Yet she needed the money, or at least some kind of job to support herself and her boys. When William’s debts were paid off, she would own the Cheyenne house they’d kept, but not much else.

Nellie began receiving other offers—some of charity and one of a job as state librarian-- but she was too proud to accept them. George pointed out that if she ran and lost, such job offers would disappear. Triumphant Republicans would offer her no job, nor any pension at all.

More days passed. Still, Nellie still didn’t make up her mind. If she ran, she could say truthfully that she was running out of an unselfish wish to finish the work her husband had been elected for, but it wasn’t quite proper in 1924 for a woman to admit the other truth. She simply wanted the job. She knew politics and wanted to see what she could do. “No one ever wanted it more,” George wrote to his wife. On Monday morning, Oct. 13, still not knowing what Nellie would decide, George boarded a train for home.

The next day, Republicans nominated Eugene J. Sullivan, a Casper lawyer. The Democrats nominated Nellie. Afterward, some delegates came to the governor’s mansion with the news. Finally, 45 minutes before the deadline, Nellie accepted.

Sullivan campaigned hard. Nellie, still deep in her grief, did not, but her backers spoke widely and took out ads on her behalf. U.S. Senator John B. Kendrick, a Democrat, noted “how fitting it was that the Equality State be the first to elect a woman governor.”

In 1869, Wyoming Territory had been the first government in the world to grant women permanently the right to vote. In 1894, Wyoming Superintendent of Public Instruction Estelle Reel was the first woman ever elected to statewide office. In 1920, women won the vote nationwide. Now, just four years later, Nellie Tayloe Ross was elected the first woman governor in the nation.

She won easily, as it turned out, by 8,000 votes out of 79,000 cast—a much bigger victory than her husband’s was two years earlier. Sullivan had oil business connections, which probably hurt him with Teapot Dome still in the news. Clearly, though, voters’ sympathy for Nellie’s loss had a lot to do with her victory.

The first woman governor

She was inaugurated Jan. 5, 1925—the first woman governor in the nation. It was a tough time to take office. Drought, farm and ranch failures and especially bank failures were spreading hardship across the state. Many people lost their property in their life savings. The oil boom was leveling off. Deadly mine explosions in western Wyoming at Kemmerer in 1923 killed 100 miners, and reminded the state that coal mining remained as dangerous as ever.

Nellie went right to work. The Legislature came to Cheyenne a few weeks later for its once-every-other-year session. Nellie outlined three of William’s policies she wanted to continue—spending cuts, state loans for farmers and ranchers and strong enforcement of prohibition.

She went on, however, to press for eight additional proposals: requiring cities, counties, and school districts to have budgets stronger state laws regulating banks exploration of better ways to sell Wyoming’s heavy crude oil earmarking some state mineral royalties for school districts obtaining more funds for the university improving safety for coal miners protecting women in industrial jobs and supporting a proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would cut back on child labor. These ideas all came from solid, Progressive thinking. But Nellie was the first governor to back them in Wyoming.

She was still a Democrat swimming in a sea of Republicans, however. In the end, the legislators supported five of her 11 proposals. With more experience, she might have focused on just three or four, and with more time, she might have made sure the people and their lawmakers understood her ideas before the session began. Equally important for future governors, she managed to beat back several legislative attempts at reducing her powers. Then it was over the session ended Feb. 22, and with it ended all Nellie’s chances of getting new laws passed.

Yet, she was now nationally famous. Women had only had the vote nationwide for a little over four years when Nellie became governor. Eula Kendrick—Mrs. Senator John B. Kendrick—invited Nellie to give a speech in Washington, D.C., to the Woman’s National Democratic Club. This allowed her also to be in Washington for the inaugural festivities in March for President Calvin Coolidge.

Dressed in black, still in mourning, Nellie rode in the inaugural parade and later spoke to the woman’s club, where her audience was large and enthusiastic. The women, Nellie remembered later, seemed pleased to find she was not too mannish and that she had kept her femininity while exercising real power. “I … do not represent the over-powering, masculine, militant type of ‘politician’ that violates their sense of what the Lord intended a woman should be,” she noted in a handwritten narrative of the festivities that she wrote out for herself at the time.

She traveled to Chicago in April 1925 to give a speech at the Woman’s World Fair, and in the summer she spoke at the National Governors’ Conference in Maine. In August, she presided at a meeting of western governors on water issues. Newspaper coverage was positive and abundant.

Yet at the same time, many press accounts gave an impression of surprise that Nellie was doing as well as she was. Newsmen and politicians alike were still puzzled by a few women’s success in politics. Their outer politeness often hid confusion, which came out later as meanness—the men would belittle the women, or ridicule them.

In earlier political movements—against alcohol and for women’s right to vote, for example—American women had learned to work together cooperatively. Now, they were caught off guard by the more ruthless politics among men.

In the summer of 1925, Nellie fired two men from state government who’d been appointed by her husband. She charged that Frank Smith, game commissioner, with drunkenness, and doing a poor job of handling the fishing-license program. M.S. Wachtel, the state’s law enforcement commissioner, had failed to enforce Prohibition, had taken protection money from bootleggers and had been drunk on the job, she charged.

Afterward, she wrote her brother George that instead of being “high strung and nervous,” as she had often been in the past, she now found she could act coolly throughout the conflict. “Something entirely new seems to have been given me,” she added.

A second campaign

Nellie ran again in 1926. By now, she had a national reputation and the Wyoming press was ready to treat her like a regular politician—and a Democrat. Nearly all the newspapers in Wyoming were Republican. The Republicans nominated Frank Emerson for governor. The Democrats nominated Nellie. She declared she owed nothing to corporations, opposed special interests and sympathized with working people. She challenged anyone to prove her performance as governor had been any less than it might have been simply because she was female.

The press attacked her, saying she hadn’t lowered taxes much and her accomplishments were minor. One Republican newspaper publisher’s wife charged in print that Nellie failed to appoint a single woman to any office previously held by men.

For most of the campaign, Nellie refused to ask people to vote for her just on the basis of her gender. Her supporters were happy to do so, though, and prominent Republican women counterattacked in the press.

Nellie fell back on what she did best. She made speeches. She toured the state in a big Packard car driven by her friend Wilson Kimball, who was running for secretary of state. When the weather was good, they made six or seven speeches a day, and when it rained and the roads got muddy, they didn’t. Republicans and Democrats alike were curious to see the lady governor. Her schedule was jam-packed, and she drew big crowds wherever she went.

Cecilia Hendricks, a homesteader from Garland, Wyo., near Powell in Park County and active in the Democratic Party, wrote home that fall to her family in Indiana:

You know . . . in this campaign the Republicans have constantly argued that no matter how well Governor Ross had done, the Gov’s office is no place for a woman, but is a man’s job. Our [Democratic] speakers have been telling this [story], and then after telling of the schedule she has been filling—more strenuous than any man candidate ever had, because the people everywhere took matters in their own hands and arranged for two or three extra meetings each day—they say they are sure it is not a man’s job, for no man could stand up under such a strain, and no one but a woman could meet all the requirements placed on her everywhere.

Finally, Nellie did play the gender card. The month before the election she said in a speech that if she lost, the whole country would say that the first woman governor was a failure. “I appeal to you,” she said, “not to place me in a false light before the nation.” And with just days to go, she said, “I do not think you will repudiate the first woman governor.”

She lost. The Republicans took all five of the top elected state offices. Nellie’s race was by far the closest of these. She lost by only 1,365 out of about 70,000 votes cast.

The national stage

Even so, this was just the start of Nellie Tayloe Ross’s long career in politics. The following year, she traveled widely and made good money giving speeches throughout the West and Midwest. In 1928, New York Governor Al Smith won the Democratic nomination for president. Nellie, now one of the most famous Democrats and one of the most famous women in the nation, campaigned extensively for him although she disagreed with him on prohibition.

When Smith lost to Herbert Hoover, Nellie was offered the salaried job of director of the Women’s Division of the National Democratic Committee. She moved to Washington D.C., leaving Wyoming more or less for good. In her new position, she directed the campaign for the women’s vote for Franklin D. Roosevelt.

After Roosevelt took office as president in 1933, he named Nellie director of the Bureau of the Mint, the government agency responsible for making new bills, new coins and melting down old ones. It was a big job, and Nellie was the first woman to hold it. Over the years, and thanks in part to her political experience first in Wyoming and then in national Democratic politics, Nellie became an excellent manager—humane and effective. Managing the U. S. Mint was her true political career. Roosevelt appointed her to three five-year stints in the job, and President Harry Truman, also a Democrat, appointed her to a fourth.

Nellie retired in 1953. She stayed in Washington. She made many smart real estate investments over the years and was finally rich, as she had always wanted to be. She had time for travel now and time for her children and grandchildren.

The legacy of Nellie Tayloe Ross

Yet despite Nellie’s election as the first woman governor in the nation, at least one Wyoming woman of her time criticized Ross for not going far enough. Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard of the University of Wyoming faculty noted in a letter to national women’s suffrage leader Carrie Chapman Catt that the “outstanding reason” Nellie was defeated “was due to the advisors that Governor Ross selected, all men.”

Similarly, more recent historians have criticized the women's suffrage movement as having not gone far enough—as having settled for the vote alone instead of stepping further, and obtaining real political power. It would be two more generations, many historians believe, before women began organizing for real power beyond the ballot.

But woman’s suffrage was not Nellie Ross’s main concern. She cared about her family, but she also cared deeply about getting things done in the public sphere—that is, about politics. She was born during the presidency of Ulysses S. Grant and died in 1977, at the age of 101, during the presidency of Jimmy Carter. She followed her ambition, saw her opportunities, took up the power available to her, and used it.

Viri

Click here to see Nellie Tayloe Ross speak to the public from her desk at the U.S. Mint, shortly after she was appointed director of the Mint by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1933. With thanks to the American Heritage Center.


Spraskali ste samo površino Nellie družinska zgodovina.

Between 1974 and 1992, in the United States, Nellie life expectancy was at its lowest point in 1992, and highest in 1974. The average life expectancy for Nellie in 1974 was 90, and 70 in 1992.

An unusually short lifespan might indicate that your Nellie ancestors lived in harsh conditions. Kratka življenjska doba lahko kaže tudi na zdravstvene težave, ki so bile nekoč razširjene v vaši družini. SSDI je podatkovna zbirka z več kot 70 milijoni imen, ki jih je mogoče iskati. Tu lahko najdete datume rojstva, datume smrti, naslove in drugo.